UNIT 8 Ch. 24 – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH ASIA COUNTRIES OF INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, BHUTAN, NEPAL, SRI LANKA, and - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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UNIT 8 Ch. 24 – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH ASIA COUNTRIES OF INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, BHUTAN, NEPAL, SRI LANKA, and PowerPoint Presentation
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UNIT 8 Ch. 24 – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH ASIA COUNTRIES OF INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, BHUTAN, NEPAL, SRI LANKA, and

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UNIT 8 Ch. 24 – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH ASIA COUNTRIES OF INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, BHUTAN, NEPAL, SRI LANKA, and
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UNIT 8 Ch. 24 – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH ASIA COUNTRIES OF INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, BHUTAN, NEPAL, SRI LANKA, and

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  1. UNIT 8 Ch. 24 – PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH ASIA COUNTRIES OF INDIA, PAKISTAN, BANGLADESH, BHUTAN, NEPAL, SRI LANKA, and the MALDIVES

  2. I. Landforms and Resources • A. Mountains and Plateaus • 1. The Himalayas • a. system of parallel mountain ranges in north part of region

  3. b. contains the world’s highestpeaks. • (1) Mt. Everest at 29, 035ft. • (2) nearly two dozen peaks rising to 24,000 or above

  4. c. Stretch for 1,500 miles and for border between India and China • 2. Deccan Plateau • a. large tableland that covers much of southern India

  5. b. tilts east toward Bay of Bengal • c. separated from sea by Eastern and Western Ghats • d. very arid (dry) region because mountains keep moisture away

  6. D. Rivers, Deltas, and Plains • 1. Indus River • a. originates in the Himalayas • b. flows west then south through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea

  7. 2. Ganges River • a. originates in central Himalayas • b. flows eastward across northern India

  8. 3. Brahmaputra River • a. originates in the Himalayas • b. winds east then south through Bangladesh • c. meets with Ganges to form a huge riverdelta and empties into the Bay of Bengal

  9. C. Fertile Plains • 1. Alluvial Plain • a. Lands that are rich farmlands • b. created when rivers overflow their banks and deposit richsoil called alluvial soil

  10. 2. Indo-Gangetic Plain • a. three-fifths of India’s population lives here • b. many large cities such as New Delhi, Calcutta, and Dhaka located here

  11. D. Offshore Islands • 1. Sri Lanka • a. large, tear shaped island located in Indian Ocean off southern tip of India • b. lush, tropical island • c. mountains dominate center and beaches on the outsides

  12. 2. Maldives Archipelago • a. consists of 1,200small islands • b. stretch north to south for 500 miles near the equator

  13. c. located to the southwest off the coast of India • d. islands are low-lying tops of submerged volcanoes and called atolls • e. only about 200 of the islands are inhabited

  14. E. Natural Resources • 1. Water and soil • a. very important because of South Asia’s reliance on agriculture

  15. b. rivers are very important and even considered sacred • c. Rivers are important methods of transportation, irrigation, and hydro-electric power

  16. 2. Forests • a. Rainforests produce mass quantities of timber as well as many different types • b. deforestation is a huge problem and causes erosion, flooding, landslides, and loss of wildlife habitat

  17. 3. Minerals • a. India ranks fourth in the world in coal production • b. Many natural gas resources

  18. c. Uranium deposits in India provide fuel for nuclear energy • d. Other resources include iron-ore, manganese, gypsum, chromium, bauxite, and copper

  19. II. Climate and vegetation • A. Very diverse climate • 1. Tropical wet, tropical wet and dry, desert, semiarid, humid subtropical, and highland are all climate zones of South Asia

  20. 2. Some areas, such as the Thar Desert, get very little rain • 3. Cherrapunji, in northeast India, once received 366inches of rain – in one month

  21. B. Monsoons • 1. Most of the regions r greatly effected by these seasonal winds • 2. From June to September winds bring heavy rainfall to the region • 3. Highly unpredictable • 4. Sometimes beneficial, sometimes very destructive

  22. C. Cyclones • 1. Violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rains • 2. Most destructive in Bangladesh because of its low-lying areas

  23. 3. Can cause wide-spread damage and kill thousands • 4. In 1970, an estimated 500,000 people were killed and 1 million left homeless in Bangladesh

  24. D. Vegetation • 1. Very diverse vegetation • 2. Diversity a result of diverse climate

  25. III. Human-Environment Interaction • A. The Ganges River • 1. Drains an area in India that is home to 350million people • 2. Provides water for drinking, farming, and transportation

  26. 3. Known as the “Mother Ganges” to Hindus • 4. Hindus believe river is sacred and has healing powers • 5. Pilgrims come from around the world to drink and bathe in the Ganges

  27. 6. One of the most polluted rivers in the world • a. millions of gallons of raw sewage and industrial waste dumped in everyday • b. bodies of dead animals and humancorpses float down river

  28. c. water poisoned with deadly bacteria • d. people who bathe and drink in the Ganges get intestinal diseases and deadly diseases such as hepatitis

  29. 7. Hindu people do not believe the river is polluted • 8. Hindu people believe that if the river has a problem “Mother Ganges” will fixit

  30. UNIT 8 CHAPTER 25 HUMAN GEOGRAPHY OF SOUTH ASIA

  31. I. India • A. Early History • 1. Civilization began in Indus River Valley around 2500 B.C. • 2. Many different groups came to India and established many different customs and traditions

  32. 3. The Muslims established the MughalEmpire by the 1500’s in India • 4. Conflict arose between the Muslims and nativeHindus that still lasts today

  33. B. Europeans arrive • 1. European traders came to India in the 1500’s • a. came for spices, cloth, and other goods not available in Europe • b. French, Dutch, Portuguese, and British all were involved early on; British finally wonout

  34. 2. British EastIndia company • a. Gained control over all trade with Europe in India in 1757 • b. In 1857, the British made India its colony and took over control of the government, which lasted for 90 years

  35. 3. India gained independence through the leadership of Mohandas Ghandi • a. He urged nonviolent resistance • b. On August 14, 1947, Britain granted India independence

  36. 4. Muslims chose to break away from India to form Pakistan and Bangladesh • a. Muslims saw that India was primarily Hindu • b. This division caused much violence that still lasts today

  37. C. Government • 1. India is world’s largestdemocracy • 2. Reflects elements of both the American and British systems • 3. Many different ethnic, cultural, and religious factors influence politics in India

  38. D. Economy • 1. Majority of people rely on agriculture • 2. Over half of people live in poverty • 3. Technological innovation has helped farmers, though some can not afford it

  39. 4. Industry is becoming big business in India • 5. Bangalore has become India’s high-tech center • a. Home to hundreds of computer software companies • b. They take advantage of India’s low wages and highly skilled workers

  40. E. Dailylife in India • 1. Family is center of life • a. Most marriages are arranged • b. marriages are maledominated • c. Divorce is rare • d. Relatives from several generations live under one roof

  41. 2. Diet • a. Largely vegetation • b. meat consumption is limited by religious beliefs

  42. 3. Recreation • a. soccer, field hockey, cricket • b. classic and modern pop music is popular • c. Movies are popular

  43. 4. Education • a. Most still work on farms or small craft industries • b. Most middle-class children attend school in cities

  44. c. In slums and rural areas, children do not regularly attend school and literacy rates are low • d. Only $6 dollars a year is spent by the government on each student; the American government spends over $6,300 per student

  45. F. Culture • 1. Hinduism • a. Dominate force in lives of most Indians • b. 80% of Indians are Hindus

  46. c. Polytheistic, or belief in many gods • d. Believe in reincarnation, or the rebirth of souls after death • e. Moral consequences of a person’s actions determine how a person is reincarnated

  47. 2. Caste System (social classes) • a. Part of Hinduism • b. Five castes

  48. (1) Brahmans (priests and scholars) • (2) Kshatriyas ( rulers and warriors) • (3) Vaisyas (farmers and merchants) • (4) Sudras (artisans and laborers) • (5) Dalits (untouchables) officially eliminated from constitution

  49. c. Belief is each person is born into caste • d. Belief is a person can move into different caste only through reincarnation • e. Causes discrimination and limits people’s ability to improve their lives

  50. II. Pakistan and Bangladesh • A. Primarily Muslim • B. Created in 1947 after British gave up rule of India • C. Much bloodshed between Hindus and Muslims was a result of this