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Levels of Consciousness. Consciousness - An organism’s or individual’s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside itself . Subconscious - Consciousness just below the level of awareness. It contains thoughts and ideas just out of our awareness.

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slide1

Levels of Consciousness

Consciousness - An organism’s or individual’s awareness of, or possibility of knowing what is happening inside or outside itself

Subconscious - Consciousness just below the level of awareness. It contains thoughts and ideas just out of our

awareness.

Unconscious - A deeper level of awareness is the unconscious. It contains thoughts and desires about which we have no true or direct knowledge.

waking consciousness
Waking Consciousness
  • Levels of information Processing
    • Parallel processing– subconscious information processing occurs simultaneously on many parallel tracks.
    • Serial processing– conscious processing takes place in sequence
waking consciousness1
Waking Consciousness
  • Fantasy-prone personalities

someone who imagines and recalls experiences with lifelike vividness and who spends considerable time fantasizing

slide4

Biological Clocks

Biological clocks are internal units that control parts of the body and which are regulated by nature. They operate on free-running cycles (under their own control).

Through entrainment, some cycles can be modified to fit a different rhythm (sleep-wake cycle).

premenstrual syndrome
Premenstrual Syndrome

3

Recalled mood is

worse than

earlier reported

Negative mood

score

2

1

Premenstrual Menstrual Intermenstrual

Menstrual phase

Recalled mood

Actual

sleep and dreams
Sleep and Dreams
  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
    • recurring sleep stage
    • vivid dreams
    • “paradoxical sleep”
      • muscles are generally

relaxed, but other

body systems are

active

sleep and dreams1
Sleep and Dreams
  • Sleep
    • periodic, natural,

reversible loss of

consciousness

brain waves and sleep stages
Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • Beta Waves
    • Wide awake waves
  • Alpha Waves
    • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
  • Delta Waves
    • large, slow waves of deep sleep
  • Hallucinations
    • false sensory experiences
  • Sleep Spindles
    • Begin during stage 2 sleep and increase through the cycle
stages in a typical night s sleep

Awake

Sleep

stages

1

2

3

REM

4

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
stages in a typical night s sleep1

Minutes

of

Stage 4 and

REM

Decreasing

Stage 4

25

20

15

Increasing

REM

10

5

0

1

2

5

6

7

8

3

4

Hours of sleep

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep
stages of sleep
Stages of Sleep
  • Upon reaching stage 4 and after about 80 to 100 minutes of total sleep time, sleep lightens, returns through stages 3 and 2
  • REM sleep emerges, characterized by EEG patterns that resemble beta waves of alert wakefulness
    • muscles most relaxed
    • rapid eye movements occur
    • dreams occur
  • Four or five sleep cycles occur in a typical night’s sleep; less time is spent in slow-wave, more is spent in REM
functions of sleep
Functions of Sleep
  • Restoration theory —body wears out during the day and sleep is necessary to put it back in shape
  • Adaptive theory— sleep emerged in evolution to preserve energy and protect during the time of day when there is little value and considerable danger
sleep deprivation
Sleep Deprivation
  • Effects of Sleep Loss
    • fatigue
    • impaired concentration
    • depressed immune system
    • greater vulnerability to accidents
sleep deprivation1
Sleep Deprivation
  • Has little effect on

performance of tasks

requiring physical

skill or intellectual

judgment

  • Hurts performance on simple, boring tasks more than challenging ones
sleep deprivation2

More sleep,

fewer accidents

Less sleep,

more accidents

Sleep Deprivation

Accident

frequency

2,800

2,700

4,200

2,600

4000

2,500

3,800

2,400

3,600

Spring time change

(hour sleep loss)

Fall time change

(hour sleep gained)

Monday before time change

Monday after time change

individual differences in sleep drive
Individual Differences in Sleep Drive
  • Some individuals need more and some less than the typical 8 hours per night
  • Nonsomniacs—sleep far less than most, but do not feel tired during the day
  • Insomniacs—has a normal desire for sleep, but is unable to and feels tired during the day
sleep disorders
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
    • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
  • Narcolepsy
    • uncontrollable sleep attacks
  • Sleep Apnea
    • temporary cessation of breathing
    • momentary reawakenings
sleep disorders1
Sleep Disorders
  • REM sleep disorder— sleeper acts out his or her dreams
  • Night terrors— sudden arousal from sleep and intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions (e.g., rapid heart rate, perspiration) that occur during slow-wave sleep
  • Nightmares– a vivid dream depicting frightening disturbing, anxiety-provoking events.
slide25

Walking and

Talking

Practical Issues in Sleep

Sleepwalking (somnambulism)

About 25% of all children have at least one episode of sleepwalking. It typically occurs during the first three hours of sleep.

Many people walk and talk in their sleep. It is normal. It is not dangerous to awaken a sleepwalker, as long as the person feels safe and secure.

slide27

Dream Content

Usually contain imagined conquests

Take place outdoors more than indoors

May be recurrent

Usually involve running or jumping

Usually involve strong emotions

Contain visual, auditory, and even taste sensations. (About 50% of our dreams are in color. No one knows why.)

dreams freud
Dreams: Freud
  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
    • wish fulfillment
    • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
  • Manifest Content
    • remembered story line
  • Latent Content
    • underlying meaning
manifest content
Manifest Content

Monsters On Bikes

  • I have this recurring dream of being chased by a gang of monsters on bikes. I know the neighborhood that I am in because I used to live there. I am on foot trying to get away and hiding in places that I know are safe. But they keep finding me. I also know it is Halloween, because I am in costume and so is everyone else. I am screaming for help, but the people around me, and the people whose doorbells I am ringing keep telling me that there is no one after me. They ask me if I want some candy to calm myself down. Then they start taking guns and shooting at me, but they miss. Finally, I can't run anymore, and they catch up to me, and grab me by my nose when I wake up.Thank you!JessicaOctober 1, 2000
latent content
Latent Content

Hi Jessica,Chase dreams are quite common and often reflect a situation that you are afraid in confronting. Being chased by a gang of monsters sounds quite frightening. You indicated that in your dream it was Halloween. These monsters were probably really people dressed in their own mask and costumes. The scenario of your dream and being that it is Halloween, furthers my belief that you are truly afraid in directly confronting a particular situation. Disguises and costumes protect and shield your real self. Behind a mask, you adapt a new persona and and feel freer in releasing your inhibitions. The costume/mask provides some sort of barrier against your vulnerabilities. It protects you from being hurt.Another significant aspect of your dream is that the people you turn to for help turns against you. Does this parallel a situation in your waking life where you felt betrayed or that your trust was undermined? Next time you have another chase dream, turn around and confront the chasers. You may be surprised to find that what you are running from is not all that frightening. In doing so, you will even find that your recurring chase dreams will occur less often.Best Regards,Steve

dreams
Dreams
  • As Information Processing
    • helps facilitate memories
  • REM Rebound
    • REM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
slide33

The Purpose of Dreaming

One hypothesis about dreaming is that it is a time for the brain to replenish chemicals used up during the day and to process information.

slide35

Hypnosis

Hypnosis is a state of relaxation. Attention is focused on certain objects, acts, or feelings.

Anton Mesmer believed power came from magnetism.

Hypnotic results really come from the power of suggestion to focus or block.

Trances are periods of deep relaxation.

No one can be hypnotized to do something they wouldn’t do anyway.

hypnosis
Hypnosis
  • Hypnosis
    • a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
  • Posthypnotic Amnesia
    • supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis
    • induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion
hypnosis1
Hypnosis
  • Unhypnotized persons can also do this
hypnosis2
Hypnosis
  • Orne & Evans (1965)
    • control group instructed to “pretend”
    • unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones
  • Posthypnotic Suggestion
    • suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized
    • used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors
hypnosis3
Hypnosis
  • Dissociation
    • a split in consciousness
    • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
  • Hidden Observer
    • Hilgard’s term describing a hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
facts and falsehoods
Facts and Falsehoods
  • Can hypnosis work for anyone?
  • Can hypnosis enhance recall of forgotten events? Age regression – relive an earlier experience
  • Can hypnosis force people to act against their will?
  • Can hypnosis be therapeutic?
  • Can hypnosis alleviate pain?
drugs and consciousness
Drugs and Consciousness
  • Psychoactive Drug
    • a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
  • Physical Dependence
    • physiological need for a drug
    • marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
  • Psychological Dependence
    • a psychological need to use a drug
    • for example, to relieve negative emotions
dependence and addiction

Big

effect

Dependence and Addiction

Response to

first exposure

Drug

effect

After repeated

exposure, more

drug is needed

to produce

same effect

Little

effect

Large

Small

Drug dose

  • Tolerance
    • diminishing effect with regular use
  • Withdrawal
    • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Depressants
    • drugs that reduce neural activity
    • slow body functions
      • alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
  • Stimulants
    • drugs that excite neural activity
    • speed up body functions
      • caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
psychoactive drugs1
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Hallucinogens
    • psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
      • LSD
psychoactive drugs2
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Alcohol– in large or small doses it is a depressant. Small doses may indeed, enliven a drinker, but they do so by slowing brain activity that controls judgment and inhibitions. It contributes to the greatest number of deaths.
psychoactive drugs3
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Barbiturates
    • drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
psychoactive drugs4
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Opiates
    • opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)
    • opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
psychoactive drugs5
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Amphetamines
    • drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
psychoactive drugs6
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Ecstasy (MDMA)
    • synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen
    • both short-term and long-term health risks
  • LSD
    • lysergic acid diethylamide
    • a powerful hallucinogenic drug
    • also known as acid
  • THC
    • the major active ingredient in marijuana
    • triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
trends in drug use
Trends in Drug Use

80%

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

High school

seniors

reporting

drug use

Alcohol

Marijuana/

hashish

Cocaine

1975 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99

Year

perceived marijuana risk

100%

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Perceived Marijuana Risk

Perceived “great risk of

harm” in marijuana use

Percent

of

twelfth

graders

Used marijuana

‘75 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99

Year

near death experiences
Near-Death Experiences
  • Near-Death Experience
    • an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death
    • often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
near death experiences1
Near-Death Experiences
  • Dualism
    • the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact
  • Monism
    • the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing