States of Consciousness Consciousness and Information Processing Sleep and Dreams • Biological Rhythms and the Rhythm of Sleep • Sleep Disorders • Dreams Hypnosis & Meditation • Facts and Falsehoods Drugs and Consciousness • Dependence and Addiction • Psychoactive Drugs
What is consciousness? Strictly defined as a mental state characterized by an awareness of ourselves and our environment To what extent is it a slippery concept? More broadly conceived, it is a mental reality(one of many) SLG Define consciousness
Levels and Types of “Consciousness”? • Daydreaming • Napping • Sleeping • Dreaming • Unconscious • Meditative state • Hypnosis • Drug-induced states (e.g. hallucinations) • Near death experience • Others? Discovering Psych 13 (1-11) SLG Explain what is meant by levels of consciousness
Controlled v. Automatic Processing -Unconscious and Conscious Automaticity • We can occupy a multiple levels of consciousness simultaneously (levels of processing). Notion of automaticity • Bargh and Chartrand’s priming studies. Bargh Vid • Rude/polite priming Gladwell • Achievement priming • Embodied cognition Wired Define automaticity. How is it related to the concept of priming?
Automaticity & Implicit Associates • Implicit Associates Test (IAT) unconscious biases and prejudice. A type of automaticity IAT Research • Shooter effect UChicago • SciAm Implicit Associates
Biological Rhythms & “Biological clocks” • Annual cycles Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)people experience during dark winter months • 28-day cycles (lunar) The female menstrual cycle • 24-hour cycles Circadian rhythm. Humans 24-hour cycles of varying alertness (sleep), body temperature, hormone secretion 4.90-minute cycles We go through various stages of sleep in 90-minute cycles.
Rhythm of Sleep Circadian Rhythmsoccur on a 24-hour cycle (closer to 25). They are disrupted as a result of flying (desynchronization = jet lag). Can You Beat Jet Lag? Light triggers the suprachiasmatic nucleus (part of hypothalamus) to decrease melatonin (increase from pineal gland at night fall) SLG Explain what is meant by circadian rhythm. How is it affected by light?
Sleep Research (Dement, Hobson, Coren...) Sleep Needs • Average, unimpeded? Needs? Average American? • Sleep deficit or deprivation/Sleep debt? • Sleep deprivation? Sleep deprivation results in deterioration of immune function, lowered concentration, and an increase in accidents BBC Truth About Sleep NG Sleep
Sleep Research and Theories (Dement, Hobson, Coren, et.al.). Why do we sleep? • Sleep protects Sleeping in the darkness kept our ancestors out of harm’s way • Sleep restores and allows us to recuperate Sleep helps restore and repair brain tissue • Sleep and memory Sleep rebuilds and consolidates our memories. Memory consolidation theory • Sleep and growth During sleep, the pituitary gland releases growth hormone. Older people release less of this hormone and sleep less
Sleep Stages Measuring sleep: About every 90 minutes, we pass through a cycle of five distinct sleep stages.
Brain Activity Awake & Alert During mental engagement, the brain exhibits low amplitude and fast, irregular beta waves
Awake but Relaxed Brain activity slows down to a large amplitude and slow, regular alpha waves
Sleep Stages 1-2 – NREM 1-2 • During early, light sleep (stages 1-2) the brain moves from alpha activity to higher-amplitude, slow, regular wave form called theta waves • Stage 1 hypnogogic sensations (hypnic jerks) • Sleep spindles and K-complex occur in 2. Daydreaming shows theta activity as well Theta Waves
Sleep Stage 3 - NREM3 During deepest sleep (NREM3) brain activity slows down. Thereis a shift to large-amplitude, slow delta waves. Sleep walking, talking and night terrors can occur.
REM Sleep (Aserinsky) After stage (3), the sleep cycle starts moving backward towards stage 1 followed by REM. In REM the brain engages in beta and alpha waves similar to awake-aroused state (10 to as much as 50 minutes) A person during this sleep exhibits Rapid Eye Movements (REM) and reports vivid dreams
More Fun Facts about REM Sleep • REM is called paradoxical sleep as brain waves are similar to waking state (Beta/Alpha) , but a person is deeply asleep and unable to move (muscle atonia) • Most vivid dreaming takes place during REM sleep • REM stage lengthens as night progresses (especially in younger people) • When deprived of REM sleep = REM rebound
Sleep Disorders: Insomnia and Parasomnias • Nightmares Frightening dreams that wake a sleeper from REM • Night terrors Sudden arousal from sleep with intense fear accompanied by physiological reactions • Narcolepsy Overpowering urge to fall asleep may occur while talking or standing up. (cataplexy) Rusty the narcoleptic dog Reggae Rusty • Sleep apnea Failure to breathe when asleep. CPAP • Parasomnias Somnambulism (Sleepwalking) Other parasomnias (seizures, restless leg, bruxism) Most occur in deep sleep not REM • Klein-Levin (hypersomnia), hypnophobia, hypnalgia, sleep-wake cycle disorders
Dreams The link between REM sleep and dreaming has opened up a new era of dream research
Why Do We Dream? • Wish Fulfillment Freud suggested that dreams provide a psychic safety valve to deal with unacceptable feelings. Manifest (apparent) content may have symbolic meanings (latent content) that express unacceptable feelings. “Royal road to the unconscious” 2. Information Processing Dreams may help sift, sort, and fix a day’s experiences in our memories. Memory consolidation model Memory consolidation
Why Do We Dream? • Physiological Function Dreams provide the sleeping brain with periodic stimulation to develop and preserve neural pathways
Why Do We Dream? • Activation-Synthesis Theory Suggests that the brain engages in a lot of random neural activity/limbic. Dreams make narrative sense of this activity. (Hobson-physiological theory) • Cognitive Development Some researchers argue that dreaming is reflective of brain maturation and cognitive development Bio-social-psychological model of dreaming
Concepts in Hypnosis Hypnotic susceptibility Induction and depth Posthypnotic suggestion Posthypnotic amnesia Social Influence (Role play) & Dissociation theory Hypnotherapy Age regression research
Is Hypnosis an Altered State of Consciousness? • Social Influence Theory/Role playing Hypnotic subjects may simply be imaginative actors playing a role 2. Divided ConsciousnessTheory/Dissociation Hypnosis is a special state of dissociated (divided) consciousness (Hilgard, 1986, 1992) (Hilgard, 1992)
Psychoactive Drugs and Consciousness • Depressantsreduce neural activity and slow body functions. They include alcohol, barbiturates and opiates (increase GABA activity) • Stimulants excite neural activity and speed up body functions (caffeine, methamphetamine cocaine, ecstasy, nicotine) • Hallucinogensare psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input (marijuana, LSD, psylocibin, neurotoxins)
Concepts in Dependence & Addiction Continued use of a drug produces tolerance. It takes greater quantities to get the desired effect Concepts of withdrawal and dependence
Depressants Alcoholaffects motor skills, judgment, and memory and increases aggressiveness while reducing self awareness (GABA) Barbituratesdepress the activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment. (Nembutal, Seconal, Amytal) OpiatesOpium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin) depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. They are highly addictive. Endorphin connection
Stimulants - Amphetamines and Meth, Ecstasy and Cocaine Amphetamines stimulate neural activity, causing accelerated body functions and associated energy and mood changes, with devastating effects
Ecstasy (Stimulant) Ecstasy or Methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) is a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. It produces a euphoric high and can damage serotonin-producing neurons (agonist), which results in a permanent deflation of mood and impairment of memory
Cocaine Cocaine induces immediate euphoria followed by a crash. Crack, a form of cocaine, can be smoked. Other forms of cocaine can be sniffed or injected. Blocks reuptake of dopamine http://www.ohsinc.com
Hallucinogens LSD(lysergic acid diethylamide) a powerful hallucinogenic drug (ergot) also known as acid THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol)is the major active ingredient in marijuana that triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations Hemp Plant
Influences on Drug Use The use of drugs is based on biological, psychological, and social-cultural influences