the hittites the assyrians the nubians
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Empires of Ancient Middle East

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The Hittites The Assyrians The Nubians. Empires of Ancient Middle East. Main Idea: To identify the Hittites and the effects of their technology on other societies. The Hittites. Essential Question: Who were the Hittites?. The Hittites. The Hittites.

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essential question who were the hittites
Essential Question:

Who were the Hittites?

The Hittites

the hittites
The Hittites
  • By 2000 B.C.E., they occupied most Anatolia (or Asia Minor)
  • City-states formed into an empire by 1650 B.C.E.
  • Capital: Hattusas
  • Controlled much of Mesopotamia for 450 years
    • Fought with Egypt to control ancient Syria
    • Eventually signed peace treaty
essential question what influenced their law system and how was it different
Essential Question:

What influenced their law system and how was it different?

The Hittites

the hittites1
The Hittites
  • Borrowed ideas about literature, art, politics, and law from Mesopotamian peoples
    • Gave each own distinctive twist
  • Legal code similar to Hammurabi’s Code, but less harsh
    • Murderers not automatically punished by death
    • Convicted murderer could make up for death by giving the family a slave or own child
essential question how was the hittites war technology superior
Essential Question:

How was the Hittites war technology superior?

The Hittites

the hittites2
The Hittites
  • Excelled in war technology
  • Superior chariots
    • Light and easy to maneuver
  • Iron weapons
    • Around 1500 B.C.E., first in Mesopotamia to smelt iron and harden it into weapons
    • Iron technology spread to areas conquered
  • Fell suddenly in 1190 B.C.E. due to waves of invasions, and the burning of the capital
the assyrians
Main Ideas:

Assyria built a military machine that was greatly feared by others in the region.

Assyria used several different methods to control its empire.

The Assyrians

essential question how was assyria able to build an empire
Essential Question:

How was Assyria able to build an empire?

The Assyrians

the assyrians a powerful army
The Assyrians – A Powerful Army
  • Assyria was located in hilly northern Mesopotamia
    • Built powerful horse and chariot army to protect lands
    • Soldiers were only ones in area to use iron swords and spear tips
    • Used battering rams, ladders, tunnels to get past city walls
    • Inside cities, feared Assyrians slaughtered enemy inhabitants
harsh treatment of captured people
Harsh Treatment of Captured People
  • Assyrians were cruel to defeated peoples
  • Enemies who surrendered were allowed to choose a leader
    • Enemies who resisted were taken captive and killed and enslaved
  • Enemy leaders were killed, and cities were burned
  • Captured peoples were sent into exile
    • Exile: forced to move from homelands to other lands, often far away
essential question how did assyria control its empire
Essential Question:

How did Assyria control its empire?

Assyrian Builds a Huge Empire

a huge empire
A Huge Empire
  • From 850 to 650 B.C.E., Assyrians conquered most of the Fertile Crescent
    • Including Syria, Egypt, Babylonia, Palestine
  • Reached peak under Ashurbanipal (668-627 B.C.E.)
    • Known for creating libraries to collect documents
  • Assyrians chose native kings and governors to rule conquered lands
  • Conquered rulers paid tribute (payment for army’s protection)
    • Assyrians destroyed cities if no tribute was paid, and exiled people
  • Assyrians made many enemies by their cruelty
    • Exiled peoples tried to gather forces to fight the Assyrians
    • Assyrians put down many revolts
assyria crumbles
Assyria Crumbles
  • Assyrian empire fell in 609 B.C.E.
    • Defeated by combined forces of the Medes and Chaldeans
    • Victors burned Assyrian capital city of Ninevah
why learn about the assyrians
The Assyrian Empire showed that to control large areas of land with many people, an empire must have a highly organized government and a strong military.

Why learn about the Assyrians?

main idea the region of nubia had connections with egypt
Main Idea:

The region of Nubia had connections with Egypt.

Nubia and the Land of Kush

essential question in what ways were nubia and egypt connected
Essential Question:

In what ways were Nubia and Egypt connected?

The Region of Nubia

upper and lower nubia
Upper and Lower Nubia
  • Nubia: African region south of Egypt, includes modern Sudan and South Sudan
  • Nubia was divided into two areas
    • Upper area was southern or upstream
    • Lower area was northern or downstream
  • People of Nubia lived along the Nile River
    • Southern Nubia’s moist climate didn’t limit farming to Nile River Valley
cultural relations between egypt and nubia
Cultural Relations Between Egypt and Nubia
  • Egypt controlled parts of Nubia between 2000 and 1000 B.C.E.
  • Egyptian art, architecture, and religion influenced Nubia
  • Egypt went through a period of decline, and Nubian kingdom Kush became powerful
  • Kushite nobles went to Egypt and brought back rituals and writing system
    • Adopted Egyptian customs, clothing styles, adapted pyramids
the decline of kush nubia
The Decline of Kush (Nubia)
  • Taharqa, a later Kushite ruler of Egypt, fought Assyrian invasion
    • Assyria conquered Egypt in 671 B.C.E. with iron weapons, bows and arrows
    • Kushite bronze weapons were too weak
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