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History of Ancient Middle East. Who lives here?. Share common history, but not a common culture Majority practice Islam: Sunni (followed elected leader – chosen in a shura) Shiite (followed Ali, cousin of Muhammad) (Israel is the exception – What do they practice?)

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who lives here
Who lives here?
  • Share common history, but not a common culture
  • Majority practice Islam:
    • Sunni (followed elected leader – chosen in a shura)
    • Shiite (followed Ali, cousin of Muhammad)
  • (Israel is the exception – What do they practice?)
  • There are also Christian communities
  • Religious identity is closely tied to social status
  • DRY – mostly desert
  • Mountain valley, river valleys and oases
  • Sahara desert – world’s largest hot desert
  • Atlas mountains in North-west Africa
Desertification-Process by which arable land becomes desert-Overgrazing strips land of plant life and exposes soil
  • Often they block moisture coming in off of the Mediterranean, Black and Caspian Seas
  • Not much arable land – Irrigation needed to sustain agriculture and life in many areas in the Middle East
  • Problem: Too much salt in the soil is drawn up with water, when water evaporates it destroys soil
  • Nile – the lifeline of Egypt
    • 96% of Egypt is desert, practically unlivable
    • Floods regularly
  • Tigris & Euphrates
    • River valley formed basis for first civilization
  • Cash crops – ie: cotton, tobacco on coastal regions
  • Traditional rug making
  • Illiteracy stands in the way of wide-spread industrial success
  • Service Industry – banking, tourism, and communications
  • Desalination – trying to solve water shortage
  • OIL
  • Venezuela joined with several Middle Eastern states to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
  • Operates as a cartel – members work together to limit competition and maintain prices
fertile crescent
Fertile Crescent
  • Heavier rainfall and access to water
  • Extends along Mediterranean Coastal plain in Israel, through Lebanon and Syria, down into northern Iraq
  • Ancient civilizations began here – Mesopotamia in 4,000B.C.
civilizations of the middle east
Civilizations of the Middle East
  • In the following slides, you will see some of the civilizations that have occupied portions of the Middle East through time. Accomplishments are listed with each civilization.
  • After looking at the civilizations and reading the text book pages, come up with one question concerning the History of the Middle East that you think should appear on a future test. Also, choose which civilization you believe had the biggest impact on this region and why
  • 5,000 BC
  • Developed trade of crafts
  • Pharaoh – ruled as god-king
  • Hieroglyphics
  • Amazing architecture, result of concern with life after death
  • Polytheistic, built Ziggurats as temples to the gods, as well as administrative centers
  • Developed Cuneiform to keep records
  • Warfare broke out over control of land and water
  • Empire in T&E river valley
  • Hammurabi – 1st ever public law code, didn’t create equality but prevented the strong from destroying the weak
    • This is where the saying “an eye for an eye comes from”…literally
hittites lydians phoenicians
Hittites, Lydians, Phoenicians
  • Hittites used iron – (stronger metal than what they had before, but brittle)
  • Lydians 1st to use coined $
  • Phoenicians lived in Lebanon, traders and navigators, developed alphabet
  • Adopted idea of monotheism
  • One God - Yaweh
  • Old Testament
  • 10 commandments
  • God demands obedience and in turn, protects his people
diaspora the forced removal of jews from their homeland
Diaspora – the forced removal of Jews from their homeland
  • Hebrews migrated from Palestine due to famine and were enslaved in Egypt – freed by Moses according to Bible
  • Settled in Canaan and set up kingdom of Israel
  • Israel split up by Assyrians and Babylonians – many Jews were exiled, this was the first Diaspora (586 BC)
  • Conquered huge empire by 500 BC
  • Built roads, “pony express” communication system
  • Lots of cultural diffusion
greeks and romans
Greeks and Romans
  • Alexander conquers Persia, tried to unite the Greek and Middle Eastern worlds
  • Greek education and culture is spread through the Middle East – more cultural diffusion
  • Romans exerted control over Egypt, Syria and Turkey
  • Rome divided, Constantinople became center of Christianity in Byzantine Empire (Eastern Rome)
  • Fell to Ottoman Turks
  • 200 years of warfare
  • Fought for control of the Holy Land (Palestine)
  • Crusaders robbed land and goods, killed Muslims and Jews
  • Suleiman the Magnificent
  • Ruled from 15th to 18th century
turks from turkey
Turks from Turkey
  • Good soldiers and administrators,

unified most of the Middle East, North

Africa and Southeastern Europe

under their control

    • Ghazis – warriors who defended

Islam in the region

  • Built mosques, created literature, became powerful empire
    • Ruled by a Sultan
    • Education, religious matters and laws controlled by mullahs
    • 18th century corruption in govt. and loss of trade routes lead to decline in empire’s land and power
napoleon the brits and the russians
Napoleon, the Brits and the Russians
  • Beginning of European infiltration into M.E.
  • After he defeated Egypt, the British came to the defense of Ottomans – shows them as superior and gave them voice in M.E. affairs
  • Brits also defend Turkey from Russia
nationalism on the arabian peninsula
Nationalism on the Arabian Peninsula
  • Wahhabis – Anti-Turkish, Anti-Western Muslim movement
    • Angry @ corruption of Ottoman govt. and western reforms
    • Urged strict puritanical devotion to Islam
  • Helped to establish Saudi Arabia
  • France and Britain take parts of the M.E. in the 1800s.
  • British occupy Egypt and control canal
  • Broken promises of Europeans after the war is won create bitterness
    • Brits had promised M.E. countries independence if they helped
    • After victory, Lebanon and Syria went to France while the British took over Iraq, Palestine, and Transjordan, (as mandates)

Growth of nationalism results from resentment of European rule and manipulation – demands for independence grow

  • Mass rallies, strikes and boycotts
  • Arabs engaged in guerilla warfare in Palestine and violent outbursts occur in occupied countries
  • Saudi Arabia and Iraq gain independence, Syria and Lebanon controlled by French until WWII
opportunity knocks
Opportunity Knocks
  • Britain defends its interests in Egypt in WWII from Italian dictator Mussolini
  • Arabs in the rest of occupied countries try to ally with Axis powers
    • Try to seize opportunity to be rid of European domination
map of history of empires
Map of History of Empires
  • http://www.mapsofwar.com/images/EMPIRE17.swf
  • Describe one possible result of the information you gather from the map.