Parts of Speech I. Nouns and Pronouns. Created by Jasveen Bhasin English Writing Tutor. Topics. Nouns Pronouns. Personal Possessive Demonstrative Relative . Nouns. Nouns name things:. Persons : Jack, man, lawyer Places : hospital, prison, field
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Nouns and Pronouns
Created by Jasveen Bhasin
English Writing Tutor
Nouns name things:
Persons: Jack, man, lawyer
Places: hospital, prison, field
Things: table, briefcase, sheet
Concepts: joy, emergency, satisfaction
Pronouns act as nouns and often replace them, e.g.,Shereplacing Jessica orItreplacing table.
There are several types of pronouns. In this section, we will focus on the following types:
There are two types of personal pronouns:
the action in the sentence.
the action in the sentence.
The subjectsperform the actions of the verbs (took, called, beat, teach).
The objects receive the actions of the verbs.
(She/Her) should show more patience and not scold (he/him).
(We/Us) teachers understand our students more than (they/them) do.
(I/Me) swim faster than (she/her).
She, the subject, is performing the action show, and him, the object, is receiving the action scold.
Weis the subject, performing the action understand;themis the object receiving the action understand;theyis another subject performing the action do.
Iis the subject because it performs the action swim. Butsheis also a subject. Followingsheis an invisible or implied swim, ie.Iswim faster thansheswims, notIswim faster thanherswims.
Pronouns that are in the possessive case indicate possession or ownership.
My is used with a noun (book) to indicate possession.
Mine is used instead of my+ a noun (book) and still indicates possession.
The pronoun your needs to be followed by a noun (eyes). The pronoun yours cannot be followed by a noun. So, yours eyes would be wrong.
Again, the pronoun your needs to be followed by a noun, but there is none: This book is your…?
Demonstrative pronouns point to nouns, which follow the pronouns. Sometimes, the demonstrative pronouns replace nouns.
Thisis not what I expected.
I’ve never heard you singthatbefore.
Theseshoes are too tight to wear.
Some relative pronouns refer to nouns previously mentioned in the sentence. Others introduce noun clauses (clauses that function as nouns).
Examples of the first and second type:
Thatrefers to the noun before it, dogs. Note:Thatis also a demonstrative pronoun. The demonstrative pronounthatcomes before the noun. E.gThatdog bit you. The relative pronounthatcomes after the noun: the dogthatbit you...
Whichalso refers to the noun before it, dogs. Many students confusewhichwiththat, often assuming they have the same functions. To learn the difference between the relative pronounswhichandthat, go to the PowerPoint presentation on Phrases and Clauses.
Right now, let’s just get familiar with the various types of pronouns.
Who refers to the noun before it, man. Note: The man is the subject performing the action stole. So, whorefers to the subject.
Whom refers to the noun before it, person. Note: The person is the object receiving the action spokeabout. So, whomrefers to the object.
What (or whatever) introduces the noun clause what you do with your life. Again, noun clauses function as one-word nouns, such as law: law is your business.
Whicheveralso introduces a noun clause whichever dress you choose. Replace the clause with a single noun, e.g., the dress will look good.
Whoever introduces the noun clause whoever is appointed. Here’s a one-word noun, Jack. Jack is bound to mess things up.
Whomever introduces the noun clause whomever she likes. Replace this with the noun, Jack: I dislike Jack.
Identify the demonstrative and relative pronouns in the following passage:
Tom couldn’t believe it! His sister had lost the CD that he had lent to her. That girl was irresponsible. He should have known: She was the same person who had ruined his favorite T-shirt – the one that he wore for good luck. He should have lent his CD to James, a friend whom he always trusted. He was more responsible than that sibling of his. Whatever she did to make up for it would not get him to forgive her.
Therelativepronouns are in green. Thedemonstrativepronouns are in blue.
Tom couldn’t believe it! His sister had lost the CDthathe had lent to her.Thatgirl was irresponsible.He should have known: She was the same personwhohad ruined his favorite T-shirt – the onethathe wore for good luck. He should have lent his CD toJames, a friendwhomhe always trusted. He was more responsible thanthatsibling of his. Whatever she did to make up for it would not get him to forgive her.
You have completed the first part of Parts of Speech.
You can now move on to:
Parts of Speech II
Troyka, Lynn Quitman. Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Hacker, Diana. The Bedford Handbook. Boston: Bedford Books, 1998.