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Parts of Speech I. Nouns and Pronouns. Created by Jasveen Bhasin English Writing Tutor. Topics. Nouns Pronouns. Personal Possessive Demonstrative Relative . Nouns. Nouns name things:. Persons : Jack, man, lawyer Places : hospital, prison, field

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parts of speech i

Parts of Speech I

Nouns and Pronouns

Created by Jasveen Bhasin

English Writing Tutor

topics
Topics
  • Nouns
  • Pronouns
  • Personal
  • Possessive
  • Demonstrative
  • Relative
nouns
Nouns

Nouns name things:

Persons: Jack, man, lawyer

Places: hospital, prison, field

Things: table, briefcase, sheet

Concepts: joy, emergency, satisfaction

pronouns
Pronouns

Personal

Possessive

Demonstrative

Relative

Pronouns act as nouns and often replace them, e.g.,Shereplacing Jessica orItreplacing table.

There are several types of pronouns. In this section, we will focus on the following types:

personal pronouns
Personal Pronouns

There are two types of personal pronouns:

Subjective Pronouns

Subjects

perform

the action in the sentence.

Objective Pronouns

Objects

receive

the action in the sentence.

subjective pronouns objective pronouns
I

You

He / She / It

We

You

They

Me

You

Him / Her / It

Us

You

Them

Subjective PronounsObjective Pronouns
examples of subjective and objective pronouns
Examples of SubjectiveandObjectivePronouns
  • Shetookherto the doctor
  • Icalledhimlast night.
  • Webeatthemat chess
  • Theyteachmegood things.

The subjectsperform the actions of the verbs (took, called, beat, teach).

The objects receive the actions of the verbs.

try this exercise
Try this exercise

(She/Her) should show more patience and not scold (he/him).

(We/Us) teachers understand our students more than (they/them) do.

(I/Me) swim faster than (she/her).

answers
Answers
  • She should show more patience and not scold him.

She, the subject, is performing the action show, and him, the object, is receiving the action scold.

  • We teachers understand them more than they themselves do.

Weis the subject, performing the action understand;themis the object receiving the action understand;theyis another subject performing the action do.

answers10
Answers
  • Iswim faster thanshe.

Iis the subject because it performs the action swim. Butsheis also a subject. Followingsheis an invisible or implied swim, ie.Iswim faster thansheswims, notIswim faster thanherswims.

possessive pronouns
Possessive pronouns

Pronouns that are in the possessive case indicate possession or ownership.

  • This is my book

My is used with a noun (book) to indicate possession.

  • This is mine

Mine is used instead of my+ a noun (book) and still indicates possession.

types of possessive pronouns
My

Your

His / Her / Its

Our

Your

Their

Mine

Yours

His / Hers / Its

Ours

Yours

Theirs

Types of Possessive Pronouns
try this exercise13
Try this exercise
  • This dress does not match the color of (her/hers) eyes.
  • I don’t believe that this book is (your/yours).
answers14
Answers
  • This dress does not match the color of your eyes.

The pronoun your needs to be followed by a noun (eyes). The pronoun yours cannot be followed by a noun. So, yours eyes would be wrong.

  • I don’t believe that this book is yours.

Again, the pronoun your needs to be followed by a noun, but there is none: This book is your…?

demonstrative pronouns
Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative pronouns point to nouns, which follow the pronouns. Sometimes, the demonstrative pronouns replace nouns.

Examples:

This

Thisis not what I expected.

That

I’ve never heard you singthatbefore.

These

Theseshoes are too tight to wear.

Those

I’ll taketheseandthosedresses.

relative pronouns
Relative Pronouns

Some relative pronouns refer to nouns previously mentioned in the sentence. Others introduce noun clauses (clauses that function as nouns).

Examples of the first and second type:

That

Which

Who

whom

What

Whichever

Whoever

Whomever

slide17
That
  • Dogsthatare adorable have expressive eyes.

Thatrefers to the noun before it, dogs. Note:Thatis also a demonstrative pronoun. The demonstrative pronounthatcomes before the noun. E.gThatdog bit you. The relative pronounthatcomes after the noun: the dogthatbit you...

which
Which
  • Dogs, which are all adorable, have expressive eyes.

Whichalso refers to the noun before it, dogs. Many students confusewhichwiththat, often assuming they have the same functions. To learn the difference between the relative pronounswhichandthat, go to the PowerPoint presentation on Phrases and Clauses.

Right now, let’s just get familiar with the various types of pronouns.

who and whom
Who and Whom
  • I saw the man who stole my car.

Who refers to the noun before it, man. Note: The man is the subject performing the action stole. So, whorefers to the subject.

  • Here is the person whom I spoke to you about.

Whom refers to the noun before it, person. Note: The person is the object receiving the action spokeabout. So, whomrefers to the object.

what ever and whichever
What(ever), and Whichever
  • What you do with your life is your business.

What (or whatever) introduces the noun clause what you do with your life. Again, noun clauses function as one-word nouns, such as law: law is your business.

  • Whicheverdress you choose will look good.

Whicheveralso introduces a noun clause whichever dress you choose. Replace the clause with a single noun, e.g., the dress will look good.

whoever and whomever
Whoever and Whomever
  • Whoever is appointed is bound to mess things up.

Whoever introduces the noun clause whoever is appointed. Here’s a one-word noun, Jack. Jack is bound to mess things up.

  • I dislike whomever she likes.

Whomever introduces the noun clause whomever she likes. Replace this with the noun, Jack: I dislike Jack.

try this exercise22
Try this exercise:

Identify the demonstrative and relative pronouns in the following passage:

Tom couldn’t believe it! His sister had lost the CD that he had lent to her. That girl was irresponsible. He should have known: She was the same person who had ruined his favorite T-shirt – the one that he wore for good luck. He should have lent his CD to James, a friend whom he always trusted. He was more responsible than that sibling of his. Whatever she did to make up for it would not get him to forgive her.

answers23
Answers

Therelativepronouns are in green. Thedemonstrativepronouns are in blue.

Tom couldn’t believe it! His sister had lost the CDthathe had lent to her.Thatgirl was irresponsible.He should have known: She was the same personwhohad ruined his favorite T-shirt – the onethathe wore for good luck. He should have lent his CD toJames, a friendwhomhe always trusted. He was more responsible thanthatsibling of his. Whatever she did to make up for it would not get him to forgive her.

slide24

Well done!

You have completed the first part of Parts of Speech.

You can now move on to:

Parts of Speech II

slide25

Concepts borrowed from:

Troyka, Lynn Quitman. Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1990.

Hacker, Diana. The Bedford Handbook. Boston: Bedford Books, 1998.