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# Chapter 2

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## Chapter 2

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1. Chapter 2 Sketching and Lettering

2. VOCABULARY **** YOU SHOULD WRITE THESE DOWN and Define them.... Might be on a test! Arcs Axis (axes) Composition Concentric Circles Ellipses Gothic Lettering Guidelines Isometric Lines Isometric Sketching Lettering Line Non- Isometric Lines Oblique Sketch Overlay Plane Point Proportion Radius (radii) Tangent arcs Texture

3. The Design Process The Design Process

4. The Design Process The Design Process

5. The Design Process STEP 1: Identify the Problem -- Students should state the challenge problem in their own words. Example: How can I design a __________ that will __________?

6. The Design Process The Design Process

7. The Design Process STEP 2: Identify Criteria and Constraints -- Students should specify the design requirements (criteria). Example: Our growth chamber must have a growing surface of 10 square feet and have a delivery volume of 3 cubic feet or less. Students should list the limits on the design due to available resources and the environment (constraints). Example: Our growth chamber must be accessible to astronauts without the need for leaving the spacecraft.

8. The Design Process The Design Process

9. The Design Process STEP 3: Brainstorm Possible Solutions -- Each student in the group should sketch his or her own ideas as the group discusses ways to solve the problem. Labels and arrows should be included to identify parts and how they might move. These drawings should be quick and brief.

10. The Design Process The Design Process

11. The Design Process STEP 4: Generate Ideas -- In this step, each student should develop two or three ideas more thoroughly. Students should create new drawings that are orthographic projections (multiple views showing the top, front and one side) and isometric drawings (three-dimensional depiction). These are to be drawn neatly, using rulers to draw straight lines and to make parts proportional. Parts and measurements should be labeled clearly.

12. The Design Process The Design Process

13. The Design Process STEP 5: Explore Possibilities -- The developed ideas should be shared and discussed among the team members. Students should record pros and cons of each design idea directly on the paper next to the drawings.

14. The Design Process The Design Process

15. The Design Process STEP 6: Select an Approach -- Students should work in teams and identify the design that appears to solve the problem the best. Students should write a statement that describes why they chose the solution. This should include some reference to the criteria and constraints identified above.

16. Chapter 2 The Design Process

17. The Design Process STEP 7: Build a Model or Prototype -- Students will construct a full-size or scale model based on their drawings. The teacher will help identify and acquire appropriate modeling materials and tools. See the design brief for a sample list.

18. The Design Process The Design Process

19. The Design Process STEP 8: Refine the Design -- Students will examine and evaluate their prototypes or designs based on the criteria and constraints. Groups may enlist students from other groups to review the solution and help identify changes that need to be made. Based on criteria and constraints, teams must identify any problems and proposed solutions.

20. OVERVIEW • What is spatial visualization? • Isometric Drawings • Sketching Isometric Drawings • Coded Plans • Visualization of Object • Viewpoints • Examples

21. SPATIAL VISUALIZATION • The ability to mentally manipulate, rotate, twist, or invert a pictorially presented object. • Important skill for scientific & technical fields, such as: • Architects & Engineers • Doctors • Computer Programmers • Anyone needing a creative solution to a problem

22. Reasons for Sketching Sketching is drawing freehand without the aid of any drafting equipment except paper and pencil. It is a very common form of visual communication that is used in virtually ALL areas of work and life.

23. Cool thing about Sketching 1. Uses no drafting equipment - freehand 2. Is an extremely fast form of visual communication. 3. Sketches increase clarity and understanding of concepts, shapes, or directions. 4. Is very convenient - can be done anywhere. 5. Is an extremely valuable organizational tool, which helps to minimize or prevent errors. 6. Is a collection of all necessary information required about an object - including detail, size and shape descriptions.

24. Reasons for Sketching • Critical Factors • A. Key Reasons for Sketching     1) Communicate     2) Organize     3) Realize Ideas • B. Key Factors while Sketching     1) Speed     2) Accuracy     3) Clarity

25. Drawing Methods Construction Lines to Object Lines 1) ALL single lines - NO "fuzzy" art type lines!     2) Point to Point     3) Dash to Dash     4) Draw Left to Right OR Bottom to Top B.

26. Drawing Methods Block Technique     1) Establish outer proportions of object(s)     2) Divide into areas of major shapes     3) Add detail as required     4) Add text where necessary to clarify (notes or          dimensions)

27. Drawing Methods Graph Technique (Resizing or Duplicating an Original) 1) Use original photo or drawing OR a xerox copy.     2) Draw Horizontal & Vertical grid lines on top of          object spaced an exact distance apart (ex. ½",          ¼", etc.).     3) On clean sheet of paper reproduce grid at          desired size (enlarge / reduce)     4) Add line detail a block at a time.

28. Types of Sketches One View Orthographic Projection1) Always that view which would be considered the          front of the object.     2) Used when only one view is necessary to provide          shape description.

29. Types of Sketches Two View Orthographic Projection  1) Front View and Top View.     2) Used for cylindrical objects when all side views          are identical.

30. Types of Sketches Three View Orthographic Projection  1) Front View, Top View, and Right Side View     2) Provides the most complete shape and size          description.     3) Is the industry standard for the manufacture of          objects.

31. Types of Sketches Enlargement / Reduction (Templates)1) Use of graph paper to enlarge or reduce grid          size     2) Complete sketch square by square, comparing          individual squares as you proceed.

32. Types of Sketches Realize Ideas / Designing 1) Front View, Top View, and Right Side View     2) Clarity is essential, use text notes whenever          necessary.     3) Be sure finished sketch reflects what is in your          mind.

33. Chapter 2 • The Glass BOX! • Does it exist? • If it does…. • How does it work? • What’s it purpose?

34. Chapter 2 • The Glass BOX! • Does it exist? YES • If it does…. • How does it work? You will see….on next slide • What’s it purpose? TO Help one visualize all the views for an object.

35. Orthographic or Multiview Drawings Imagine that you have an object suspended by transparent threads inside a glass box.

36. Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued… Then draw the object on each of three faces as seen from that direction. Unfold the box (figure 4) and you have the three views. We call this an "orthographic" or "multiview" drawing.

37. Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued… Figure 5 shows how the three views appear on a piece of paper after unfolding the box.

38. Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued… Which views should one choose for a multiview drawing? The views that reveal every detail about the object. Three views are not always necessary; we need only as many views as are required to describe the object fully.

39. Orthographic or Multiview Drawings, Continued… For example, some objects need only two views, while others need four. The circular object in figure 6 requires only two views. Figure 6 - An object needing only two orthogonal views

40. To Review

41. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION • Shows the faces of an object • Faces are parallel to the viewing plane • Frontal • Profile • Horizontal

42. VIEWING PLANES

43. FRONT VIEW

44. RIGHT SIDE VIEW

45. TOP VIEW

46. MULTIVIEW PROJECTION

47. UNFOLD THE BOX

48. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

49. ORTHOGRAPHIC DRAWING • Front view shows height & width • Side view shows height & depth • Top view shows width & depth • Visible edges are solid lines. • Non-visible edges are dashed (hidden) lines • Views align with each other • Rotation from one view to another equals 90°

50. ROTATION OF VIEWS