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I. Why empire?. 1. markets – farming and industry. 2. yellow press – Hearst, Pulitzer 3. manifest Destiny – Strong: Our Country: Its Possible Future and present Crisis 4. Social Darwinism – Roosevelt, Lodge 5. navy power – Mahan: sea power is world dominance. Diplomatic fusses.

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i why empire
I. Why empire?
  • 1. markets – farming and industry.
  • 2. yellow press – Hearst, Pulitzer
  • 3. manifest Destiny – Strong: Our Country: Its Possible Future and present Crisis
  • 4. Social Darwinism – Roosevelt, Lodge
  • 5. navy power – Mahan: sea power is world dominance
diplomatic fusses
Diplomatic fusses
  • Near war with Germany (Samoa), Italy (lynchings), Chile (sailor deaths), Canada (seal hunting), and Britain (gold).
  • Hawaii – immigrant and tariff tensions, annexation opposed by Queen Liliuokalani
trouble in spain
Trouble in Spain
  • Cuban rebels struggled under tariff, wanted independence; Gen. Weyler gave them reconcentration camps.
  • Yellow journalists Pulitzer, Hearst sensationalized the sinking of the Maine: “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”
  • Give 5 reasons for American imperialism.
  • Name 5 countries we almost went to war with.
  • What happened in Hawaii?
  • Why trouble with Spain?
  • What did General Weyler do to suppress the insurrectos?
ii spanish american war 1898
II. Spanish-American War, 1898
  • McKinley pressured into war by Roosevelt, Lodge; Teller Amendment said we would give Cuba independence
  • Commodore George Dewey destroyed 10 ships in Manila Bay, Phillipines
  • Aguinaldo helped defeat the Spanish in the Phillipines; Hawaii annexed as provisioning station
  • Overweight Shafter; TR and Rough Riders charged up San Juan (Kettle) Hill
splendid little war
Splendid little war
  • Spanish fleet destroyed, Puerto Rico and Hawaii taken
  • 400 battle deaths, 5000 to disease in “splendid little war.”
  • Praying over dilemma, McKinley paid $20m, annexed Phillipines, angering anti-Imperialism League
  • 1.Pressured McKinley into war
  • 2. Defeated Spanish navy in Phillipines
  • 3. Filipino rebel leader
  • 4. Annexed as provision station
  • 5. Rode on a door
  • 6. Leader of Rough Riders
  • 7. Battle deaths
  • 8. Disease
  • 9. annexation
  • 1. Answer to Filipino dilemma
  • 2. TR
  • 3. TR/Lodge
  • 4. Shafter
  • 5. 5000
  • 6. 400
  • 7. Hawaii
  • 8. Dewey
  • 9. Aguinaldo
iii results of war
III. Results of war
  • Free Cuba; U.S. world status went up, acquired Guam, Phillipines, Puerto Rico, and unified north and South
  • Platt Amendment – U.S. retained right to intervene, Guantanamo naval base, and oversee Cuban treaties and debt.
  • Former Confederate Wheeler: “To hell with the Yankees – I mean Spaniards!”
filipino rebellion
Filipino rebellion
  • Emilio Aguinaldo led rebellion ag. 126,000 U.S. troops; reconcentration camps and water cure.
  • 350 lb. William Taft civil governor of Phillipines, improved roads, health, sanitation, schools but resented.
china s open door
China’s Open Door
  • Fearing an imperial takeover of China, Sec. of State John Hay issues Open Door Policy.
  • All nations would be allowed to trade in China; resented by Chinese (Boxer Rebellion) , commercial and territorial integrity respected
  • What were the results of the Spanish-American War?
  • What was the Platt Amendment?
  • What and who was the problem in the Phillipines?
  • What nasty things did we do there?
  • Who became civil governor? What did he improve?
  • Open Door – who what when where why?
iv politics
IV. politics
  • 1900 McKinley beat Bryan, this time on prosperity and expansion; war hero TR became VP, less trouble than in NY
  • McKinley killed by Leon Czolgosz, TR President – ex cowboy and Harvard grad, “Speak softly and carry big stick.”
teddy roosevelt
Teddy Roosevelt
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty – Britain gave us permission to dig canal thru isthmus
  • Phillip Bunau-Varilla aided Panamanian revolution against Colombia
  • Canal construction 1904-1910; Gorgas disease eradication
roosevelt corollary to monroe doctrine
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine
  • Concerned with Germany and Britain, TR announced that US would intervene to collect Latin American debts – justified Big Stick intervention
  • TR won Nobel Price for Portsmouth Treaty between Russia and Japan
  • “Gentlemen’s agreement” on Japanese immigration; Great White Fleet sent around world
  • Who won the election of 1800?
  • Whom did he beat?
  • Who was the VP?
  • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty?
  • Bunau-Varilla?
  • How did we get the canal zone?
  • What was the Roosevelt corollary?
  • What prize did TR win, and why?
  • Gentlemen’s agreement?
  • Great White Fleet?
i progressivism
I. Progressivism
  • Progressives were reformers who wanted government to fight monopoly, corruption, and injustice.
  • Veblen – Theory of the Leisure Class; Riis – How the Other Half Lives
  • Middle class, Socialists, social gospel Christians, feminists
  • TR labeled progressive writers “muckrakers” for their focus on the negative.
  • McClure’s, Cosmopolitan magazines.
  • Lincoln Stephens – “Shame of the Cities” about city corruption; Ida Tarbell – “History of Standard Oil”
  • Direct primaries – not bosses; initiative, referendum, and recall
  • Campaign finance reform, Australian ballot, direct election of Senators, city managers
  • Leaders: Robert LaFollette (WI), Hiram Johnson (CA), Charles Evans Hughes (NY)
  • ID author:
  • Theory of the Leisure Class
  • How the Other Half Lives
  • Shame of the Cities
  • History of Standard Oil
  • Name 2 progressive magazines.
  • Name 7 progressive reforms
  • Name 3 progressive state leaders
ii women
II. women
  • Settlement houses exposed problems to women, who devised solutions
  • Focus on moral, maternal issues like child labor, sweatshops, tenement life
  • Muller v. Oregon – factory work bad for women; Lochner v. New York (1905)– 10 hr day not nec; but upheld in 1917
  • 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire killed 146 mostly immigrant women; stronger workplace safety laws resulted
  • Associated with party boss, corrupt elections, fought by WCTU and Anti-Saloon League
  • Wets – urban areas, favored legal alcohol; drys – rural areas, half the country by 1914.
  • How did settlement houses affect women?
  • Muller v. Oregon?
  • Lochner v. NY?
  • What was the importance of the Triangle Shirtwaist fire?
  • What social ills was the saloon associated with?
  • Where were wets and drys located?
iii tr and square deal
III. TR and square deal
  • Square Deal – treat everyone fairly; 3 C’s – Corporations, consumers, conservation.
  • Negotiated compromise between coal miners and mine owners; 1st to stand up to corporate leaders
more square deal
More square deal
  • Elkins Act: fines for rebates
  • Hepburn Act – ICC could set maximum freight rates
  • Trust buster – Northern Securities Company, run by JP Morgan, broken up; but often tolerated “good” trusts
consumers and conservation
Consumers andconservation
  • Consumers: TR read Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle: Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act 1906.
  • Conservation: Set aside 125m acres from development; expanded national forests; friends with conservationist Pinchot and Muir; Boy Scouts founded
  • What was TR’s domestic program called?
  • What were the 3 C’s?
  • What strike did TR negotiate an end to?
  • Elkins Act?
  • Hepburn Act?
  • What trust did he bust?
  • What two laws resulted from The Jungle?
  • What conservationist measures did TR take?
  • What friends?
  • What organization/
iv taft
IV. Taft
  • TR strengthened Presidency, huge personality, won 1904 didn’t run 1908, picked Taft
  • Taft beat Bryan; both claimed Progressivism; Socialist Eugene Debs got over 400,000 votes
president taft
President Taft
  • Conservative, mild-mannered
  • Dollar diplomacy – invest to advance U.S. interests; intervention in Cuba, Honduras, Dominican, Nicaragua
  • Taft 90-44 antitrust suits; Standard Oil broken up; U.S. steel antitrust suit.
  • A conservationist, Taft fired TR friend Pinchot, for criticizing Interior Sec. Ballinger
  • TR preached “New Nationalism” and started 3rd party.
  • What was TR’s legacy?
  • How did Taft get to be President?
  • What was Taft’s foreign policy?
  • Where did he send troops?
  • How did Taft fare as a trust buster?
  • What conservation policy angered TR?
  • How did TR undermine Taft?
i election of president wilson
I. Election of President Wilson
  • Woodrow Wilson – Southern-born Democrat, Govt professor, Princeton President
  • Supported by Bryan, his New Freedom Program advocated small business.
progressive bull moose party
Progressive/Bull Moose Party
  • Taft was Republican; TR nominated by Progressive/Bull Moose Party; shot and made speech
  • Taft and TR split the Republican vote; Wilson elected with 41% of vote; Socialist Debs got 6%
president wilson
President Wilson
  • Pro-South; idealistic, Presbyterian, intellectual.
  • Loved humanity generally more than individual; inflexibly stubborn
  • What kind of man was Wilson?
  • What 3 other parties?
  • Why did Wilson win, with how much of vote?
  • What were his strengths and weaknesses as President
ii wilson s domestic policy
II. Wilson’s domestic policy
  • Attacked “the triple wall of privilege:” tariffs, banks, and trusts
  • Low Underwood Tariff;

16th amendment - income tax, chief revenue source

federal reserve 1913
Federal Reserve 1913
  • 12 reserve districts, each with a central “bankers” bank.
  • Issued “Federal Reserve notes;” amount could be easily increased
  • Federal Trade Commission (FTC) attacked unfair trade practices.
  • Clayton Antitrust Act –attacked trusts not unions; labor exempt from antitrust legislation; AFL leader Gompers called it “the Magna Carta of Labor.”
other progressive measures
Other progressive measures
  • Low interest rates for farmers, higher wages, workman’s comp. child labor, 8 hr day on trains
  • Nominated Jewish Louis Brandeis for Supreme Court, more segregationist on black appointments
match em
Match ‘em
  • Triple wall of privilege
  • Underwood Tariff
  • 16th amendment
  • Federal Reserve
  • Powers of Fed
  • FTC
  • Clayton Antitrust Act
  • Other stuff Wilson did
  • Wilson’s nominations
  • Jews not blacks
  • New source of revenue
  • Lowered rates
  • Control money supply, regulate economy
  • Fight trusts, monopolies, and insider trading
  • 12 banks, print paper money
  • Int rates, wages, child labor, workman’s comp
  • Tariff, banks, trust
iii wilson s foreign policy missionary diplomacy
III. Wilson’s foreign policy – missionary diplomacy
  • Missionary diplomacy: Less aggressive posture – lowered Panama Canal toll on Britain.
  • Jones Act – Phillipines a territory, independent when ready (1946)
still sends in troops
Still sends in troops
  • Marines to Haiti 1914-15 to protect U.S. citizens; supervised government/finance.
  • Marines to Dominican (debt); bought Virgin Islands (close to Panama)
  • Wilson sent arms to Pres. Huerta’s rivals, Carranza and Pancho Villa
  • U.S. seized Vera Cruz; resented by Pres. Carranza; Villa killed 35 Americans on both sides of border, chased by Pershing
  • Not big stick not dollar but what kind of diplomacy?
  • What did the Jones Act do?
  • Into what two countries did Wilson send marines? Why?
  • Why was Wilson mad at Huerta? What’d he do about it?
  • Why was Wilson mad at Villa? What’d he do about it?
iv w wilson and wwi
IV. W.Wilson and WWI
  • Causes: nationalism, militarism, imperialism, alliances – Triple Entente (FBR) v. Triple Alliance (GAHI)
  • Events:1. Serbs kill Ferdinand.
  • 2. A-H threatens.
  • 3. Russia, France mobilized around Germany
  • 4. Germany attacks France through Belgium: trench warfare
  • Britain attacks: Allies (FBR) v. Central Powers (GAH)
  • Wilson urges neutrality of thought and deed.
  • Divided America: British ties & German spies v. 11m immigrants
election of 1916 and wwi
Election of 1916 and WWI
  • British trade only; German subs
  • Lusitania sunk; 128 Americans on board; Wilson mad and Bryan resigned; Sussex Pledge
  • Wilson reelected 1916 277-254 for staying out of war, defeating Judge Charles Evans Hughes; TR bellicose
  • Name 4 causes of WWI.
  • What were the two alliances/countries?
  • Start the war in 4 events.
  • 2 sides in the war
  • US position?
  • Why were we divided?
  • What brought us close to war?
  • How was Wilson reelected in 1916?
i going to war
I. Going to war
  • Unrestrained sub warfare: Germany sank four U.S. ships in March, 1917.
  • Zimmerman telegram: Germany proposed a Mexican alliance with land back at end of the war.
wilson s idealism
Wilson’s idealism
  • To overcome isolationism, “War to end all wars…to make the world safe for democracy.”
  • 14 Points speech: no secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade (no tariffs), arms reduction, self-determination
  • George Creel’s Committee on Public information used propaganda to get war support: posters, songs, speeches, movies.
  • Germans persecuted, antiwar leaders Debs and Haywood jailed.
  • List 3 causes of American entry into WWI.
  • What did Wilson call the war? Why?
  • Identify and list some of the 14 points.
  • Who was George Creel and what did he do?
  • Who was persecuted and prosecuted?
ii life at home
II. Life at home
  • “Work or fight” slogan; Gompers and AFL supported war, Haywood and IWW didn’t; Steel strike biggest in history, failed
  • Great Migration – African-Americans moved north, used as scabs; race riots in E. St. Louis and Chicago
suffrage finally
Suffrage finally
  • Some feminist pacifists, but most women supported war effort; Wilson supported 19th amendment.
  • Fought ag. Workplace discrimination and child labor.
hail hoover
Hail Hoover
  • Food Sec. Hoover fed the starving in Belgium, pushed voluntary food rationing: wheatless Tuesdays, meatless Wednesdays, victory gardens.
  • Fuel rationing: heatless Mondays, lightless nights, gasless Sundays (18th amendment)
  • War financed with Liberty bonds (pressured) and taxation.
  • 1. Work or fight
  • 2. Gompers/AFL
  • 3. Haywood/IWW
  • 4. Great Migration
  • 5. Women’s war support
  • 6. Voluntary rationing
  • 7. War bonds, taxes
  • 8. Spirit of self-denial
  • 1. Financing war
  • 2. Supplying war
  • 3. 19th amendment
  • 4. 18th amendment
  • 5. Unions supporting war
  • 6. Unions striking during war
  • 7. Gasless Sundays, meatless Wednesdays..
  • 8. effort to discourage strikes
iii the war
III. The war
  • Conscription: 18-45 – exemptions for shipbuilding; 4,000 conscientious objectors.
  • 4 million “doughboys,” 11,000 women, black soldiers segregated, noncombat
  • Germans within 40 miles of Paris; Americans helped push them back.
  • Gen. Pershing led Meuse-Argonne offensive; biggest battle in U.S. history - 1.2m troops, 120,000 casualties; Alvin York the hero
end of war
End of war
  • Armistice signed 11/11/18 at 11:00.
  • U.S. contributed supplies and prospective battle wins.
  • Wilson went to Paris with no Republicans, angering For Rel. Chairman Lodge
  • Describe the draft.
  • How many soldiers, women, African-Americans?
  • What was happening when we got there?
  • What American general?
  • What American hero?
  • What was the biggest battle ever?
  • What was the U.S. contribution to the war effort?
  • When is Armistice/Veterans Day?
  • How did Wilson mess up?
iv treaty of versailles
IV. Treaty of Versailles
  • Big 4 at Paris: Wilson (US), Lloyd George (Br), Orlando (Italy), Clemenceau (France)
  • Other allies wanted land: Britain got Iraq; France got Syria
  • Wilson saw League of Nations as cure-all
failure of the treaty
Failure of the Treaty
  • Germany signed Treaty with reparations, lost land and military.
  • Lodge delayed;Wilson speaking tour, had stroke
  • Feud killed the treaty
election of 1920
Election of 1920
  • Warren Harding, picked by GOP Senate bosses, defeated James Cox (D-OH) in 1920.
  • Americans were tired of idealism, do-goodism, ready for Harding’s “return to normalcy.”
  • Who were the Big 4?
  • Who got what land?
  • What was the key to peace, for Wilson?
  • How was the Treaty of Versailles tough on Germany?
  • How did Lodge and Wilson kill the treaty?
  • Who was elected in 1920, and why?
i 1920s fear
I. 1920s fear
  • Red Scare: fear of Communism; led by Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer, whose home was fire-bombed.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti – two Italian immigrants executed for murder, were atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers
acting on the fear
Acting on the fear
  • KKK made a comeback as antiforeign, antiCatholic, antiradical, antiJewish (Leo Frank case); marched in DC, burned crosses
  • Emergency Quota Act 3% of pop. 1910; National Origins Act 2% of pop. 1890; no Japanese immigrants at all
  • 18th amendment; Volstead Act passed by Congress
  • Speakeasies and moonshine flourished; bank savings increased, less absenteeism, probably less drinking
  • 1. Red Scare
  • 2. A. Mitchell Palmer
  • 3. Sacco and Vanzetti
  • 4. KKK
  • 5. Emergency Quota Act
  • 6. National Origins Act
  • 7. Japanese immigration
  • 8. speakeasy
  • 1. Prohibition era bar
  • 2. Antiforeign, antiJew
  • 3. 3% immigration 1910
  • 4. 2% immigration 1920
  • 5. None after 1920
  • 6. Fear of Communists
  • 7. Anticommunist attorney general
  • 8. Executed radicals
ii roaring 20s
II. Roaring 20s
  • Gangsters /mafia made $12m to $18m on illegal alcohol: more than govt.
  • Al Capone ruled Chicago, murdered rivals, jailed for income tax evasion, died of syphillis.
declining values
Declining values
  • Modernists v. Fundamentalists: Scopes-Monkey Trial 1925; Scopes taught evolution; Darrow put Bryan on the Stand; Bryan died in 5 days
  • Cars represented freedom, “prostitute house on wheels.”
  • Advertisers created discontent, buying on credit, less discipline
the ford
The Ford
  • Henry Ford sold 20m Model Ts; “any color as long as it’s black”
  • Mass production Taylorism, Fordism ; a Ford produced every 10 seconds: oil in TX OK CA, roads, suburbs, gas stations, farms all helped; rr hurt
  • Babe Ruth 1st sports hero: “better year than the President.”
all this stuff
All this stuff
  • Gangsters
  • Al Capone
  • Mafia money
  • John Dewey
  • Fundamentalists
  • Scopes Monkey
  • Bryan Darrow
  • Ford every 10 seconds
  • Advertising
  • Buying on credit
  • Babe Ruth
  • Taylorism
  • Ford – 20 million
  • Industries
  • Car as self-respect and freedom
  • Deaths
  • House of prostitution on wheels
iii heroes and entertainment
III. Heroes and entertainment
  • Wright brothers flew first, 1903
  • Lindbergh’s Spirit of St. Louis; 1st transatlantic flight; rr hurt again
  • Marconi invented radio; KDKA of Pittsburgh 1st station; had domesticating effect
  • “Great Train Robbery” 1st silent film; “Birth of a Nation,” “Jazz Singer” 1st talkie
  • Charlie Chaplin silent movie star; Al Jolsen was Jewish star imitating African-Americans.
  • Women: Margaret Sanger pushed birth control; flappers danced in jazz clubs
  • Jazz from New Orleans - Louis Armstrong, Cotton Club
  • Harlem Renaissance – black cultural achievement – Langston Hughes “I Too Sing America.”
  • When did the Wright brothers fly?
  • What did Lindbergh do?
  • What was the first silent film? First talkie?
  • How did Al Jolsen make a living?
  • Who was the greatest jazz star? Its most famous club?
  • What was the African-American cultural achievement called?
  • Name Langston Hughes’ most famous poem.
iv rejection of values
IV. Rejection of values
  • Sigmund Freud invented talk therapy, focused on repressed desire
  • Jamaican-born Marcus Garvey led back to Africa movement, focused on self-reliance, deported for mail fraud
lost generation
Lost Generation
  • Fitzgerald – “all gods dead, all wars fought, all faith in man shaken.”
  • Wrote Great Gatsby about self-made Jay Gatsby
  • Hemingway – The Sun Also Rises, Farewell to Arms
  • TS Eliot – “Waste Land”
other important figures
Other important figures
  • William Faulkner – As I Lay Dying; Absalom! Absalom! about Yoknapatawpha, Miss.
  • Treasury Secretary Mellon lowered taxes on wealthy $600,000 to $200,000 for millionaire, lowered debt
  • Speculation, margin buying to gain wealth
match em1
Match ‘em

1. Freud

2. Marcus Garvey

  • 3. Fitzgerald
  • 4. Hemingway
  • 5. TS Eliot
  • 6. Faulkner
  • 7. Andrew Mellon
  • 8. Speculation
  • 9. Margin buying
  • 1. Short term investing
  • 2. Indebted short term investing
  • 3. As I Lay Dying
  • 4. Great Gatsby
  • 5. The Sun Also Rises
  • 6. “The Waste Land”
  • 7. Talk therapy
  • 8. Back to Africa
  • 9. strange folks in Mississippi