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Heart. Blood vessels. Circulatory System or Cardiovascular System. arteries. veins. Functions. Oxygen, nutrients, hormones Carbon dioxide & waste Lungs receive carbon dioxide (exhale) Cell waste carried to kidneys for removal from body. To Cells. From Cells. Cardiac Muscle.

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Circulatory system or cardiovascular system


Blood vessels

Circulatory Systemor Cardiovascular System




  • Oxygen, nutrients, hormones

  • Carbon dioxide & waste

    • Lungs receive carbon dioxide (exhale)

    • Cell waste carried to kidneys for removal from body

To Cells

From Cells


Cardiac Muscle


  • Never rests

  • Sends blood to

    • Lungs

    • Rest of body

  • Contains myocardium

    • Special type of muscle

4 heart chambers
4 Heart Chambers

4 Chambers

  • Septum divides into left/right halves

    • 2 chambers in each ½

      • Upper chamber: atrium

      • Lower chamber: ventricle

  • 1 way valves

    • Blood flows in 1 direction

  • How does it beat?

    • Impulses from brain send an electrical impulse


Circulation in the heart





Circulation in the Heart

1. Blood with carbon dioxide and waste is carried to heart

See page 390

2. Pumped into lungs

3. Blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide

4. Oxygenated blood is passed back to the heart

5. Pumped to the body’s tissues through aorta


  • Delivers

    • Oxygen, nutrients & hormones

  • Carries away

    • Wastes and carbon dioxide

  • Helps to defend against infection

4 parts of blood
4 Parts of Blood


1.Plasma (55% of blood)

-Liquid containing nutrients, waste, salts, and proteins

2.Red blood cells (40%)

  • Carry oxygen to tissues

  • Hemoglobin molecule: oxygen carrying part of blood

    • Rich in iron

    • Pigment that makes blood red



Circulatory system or cardiovascular system

3.White blood cells

  • Some kill (surround, invade and ingest) pathogens

  • Some form antibodies for immunity to a 2nd attack


  • Prevent the body’s loss of blood: forming blood clots

    • Scab is evidence of a clot

3 types of blood vessels
3 Types of Blood Vessels

Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from heart

Veinscarry deoxygenated blood back to heart

Capillaries“end of the road” connect arteries and veins

How a scab forms
How a scab forms:

  • A wound or cut in the skin leaks blood from the damaged blood vessels.

  • Chemicals released from damaged cells and platelets make dissolved substances in the blood turn into a meshwork of microfibres, of the substance fibrin. This network traps blood cells.

  • Gradually the meshwork hardens into a clump or clot that seals the leak. The clot then hardens and dries further into a protective scab.

  • White cells arrive to attack any germs, and the skin begins to regrow and heal.

Circulatory system or cardiovascular system

  • Don’t smoke

    • Nicotine increases blood pressure & heart rate by narrowing arteries

  • Maintain appropriate weight

  • Exercise (aerobic exercise)

    • At least 20 continuous min 3 x’s a week

    • Strengthens heart, improves circulation

Most problems are

within your control!

Blood pressure



Blood Pressure

  • The force of blood on arteries

    • Systolic-blood surges through arteries

      • 110-120

    • Diastolic-ventricles relax & refill with blood

      • 70-90


  • Congenital Heart Disease

    • Congenital: occurring at birth

    • Examples

      • Hole between 2 chambers

      • Valves not functioning properly

      • Blockage of blood flow

    • Treatment: surgery

  • Heart Murmur

    • Abnormal sound

    • Major cause: defective valve

      • Sound:

        Use the WAV File


A Molecule to Breath With

Iron Atom


3. Anemia

  • Hemoglobin molecule is below normal levels

  • Body cells don’t receive oxygen

  • Common cause: iron deficiency

    • Eat leafy green veggies, dried fruits, supplements

Circulatory system or cardiovascular system


4. Heart Attack

  • Blood supply to part of the heart muscle is severely reduced or stopped

    • Normally due to a buildup of plaque within the coronary arteries

  • Treatments

    • Bypass surgery

Circulatory system or cardiovascular system




1. To widen narrowed coronary arteries, a football-shaped burr that rotates up to 200,000 times a minute may be used to cut away plaque from artery walls.

3. A stent is typically used to prevent re-narrowing after an artery is widened.

2. Balloon angioplasty flattens plaques and stretches the artery wall.

Circulatory system or cardiovascular system


5. Leukemia

  • Cancer of the blood

  • Abnormal production of WBC in bone marrow

    • Cells spill into blood, enter other organs & interfere with functioning

    • Prevent marrow from producing RBC, platelets & normal WBC

  • Treatments

    • Bone marrow transplants

    • Process slowed with:

      • Chemotherapy (chemicals)

      • Radiation



  • What does blood carry to body cells?

  • What does blood remove from body cells?


  • What are the 3 main blood vessels?

    • Which contains oxygen?

    • Which does not contain oxygen?

    • Which are the smallest?

  • Name the upper and lower chambers of the heart.

  • Name the oxygen-carrying part of the blood.

    Cell: ________________ Molecule: ______________

  • Name the 4 main parts of the blood?

    • What is the largest % of the blood?

    • What do WBC do?

    • What do RBC do?

    • What do platelets do?



  • What does nicotine do to your blood pressure?

  • What does nicotine do to your arteries?

  • What is the recommended amount of exercise?

    • _________ continuous minutes, ________ x’s a week.

      4. What is a normal blood pressure reading?


  • What does congenital mean?

  • Give one example of congenital heart disease.

  • What is the major cause of a heart murmur?

  • Anemia is lack of what molecule?

    • What is the most common cause of anemia?

    • What foods contain iron?

  • What is the name for cancer of the blood?

    • Name 1 treatment method.