The Eight Multimedia Learning Principles A brief overview of the Multimedia Learning Principles and examples of how they are used and applied in presentations.
Multimedia Principle • The Multimedia Principle states that using words and graphics in a presentation is better than using just words alone. • People understand topics better when they engage in active learning. • Example: • Words + = Better Understanding/Improved Learning • Rather than just words = Learning
Contiguity Principle • The Contiguity Principle states that words and graphics should be organized neatly and not just thrown together. • Try to make sure that your text corresponds to an appropriate graphic. • Example: • This graphic can be too confusing and will cause learners to focus more on the graphic and demonstrate a less capacity for deeper learning.
Modality Principle • The Modality Principle states that audio that repeats the on-screen texts can distract the learner. • Graphics and narration are better to use than narration and text that repeat each other. • An example of this would be to narrate the step-by-step process of tying your shoes. • Better to have a visual of each step and a narration of what to do • Rather than if there were a visual of each step, a narration of what to do, and also text on-screen that repeats the narration.
Redundancy Principle • The Redundancy Principle states that you should not repeat information in additional slides. • An example of this is not to use audio that states what the text says. • Using either on-screen text and graphics or: • audio and graphics works better than audio, texts and graphics combined.
Coherence Principle • Less is More • Example: • Adding music or pictures that do not fit the presentation can actually harm the lesson.
Personalization Principle • The Personalization Principle states that recently, conversational style has grown in popularity and that conveying information as if you are discussing it with a friend can help guide the learning process. • The use of avatars and virtual coaches are an example of how to personalize your work.
Segmenting Principle • The Segmenting Principle states that breaking up a lesson into ore manageable parts (segments) increases the learning from the student. • Example: • Breaking up a presentation on World History into smaller, more manageable sections. • U.S. History • European History • African History • Asian History
Pretraining Principle • Prior Knowledge. • An example of this would be learning the names of state capitols before learning where they are located on a map of the United States.