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Welcome to Unit 2 Any Questions?. Getting Ready For Project 1: Unit 3. Read assignment carefully Review Rubric and use as checklist Proof read carefully. Don’t depend on Spell Check alone! Use APA writing style. See sample paper in Doc Sharing.

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getting ready for project 1 unit 3
Getting Ready For Project 1: Unit 3
  • Read assignment carefully
  • Review Rubric and use as checklist
  • Proof read carefully. Don’t depend on Spell Check alone!
  • Use APA writing style. See sample paper in Doc Sharing.
  • Use KU Library, rather than the Internet to find your articles. If you aren’t familiar with the library, click on the link and take the orientation tour.
  • Questions?
applied behavior analysis is grounded in principles of learning
Applied Behavior Analysis is grounded in Principles of Learning
  • Learning
    • any process through which experience at one time can alter an individual’s behavior at a future time
    • A relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge that is due to past experience
behaviorism is
BEHAVIORISM IS:
  • The attempt to understand observable activity in terms of observable stimuli and observable responses
  • IMPORTANT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIORAL THEORY
    • PAVLOV
    • WATSON
    • THORNDIKE
    • SKINNER
types of learning
Types of Learning

Respondent or Classical Conditioning

Operant Learning

BF Skinner

Behavior that is shaped by consequences

I study hard for this test and get a high grade, so I study hard next test too.

I come to work all week and get paid, so I keep coming to work

The more projects I complete, the more I get paid, so I work as fast as I can

  • Ivan Pavlov
  • Behavior that is reflexive elicited by a stimulus)
  • When I smell food, I salivate
  • When I smell bad food, I gag
  • When A puff of air is blown in my face, I blink
important terms
Important Terms

Ivan Pavlov: Founder of the practice of Classical Conditioning

Respondent Conditioning: Synonymous term for Classical Conditioning.

Unconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that naturally produces a response

Unconditioned Response: A response that is naturally produced by the subject.

Neutral Stimulus: A stimulus which normally does not elicit the response.

Conditioned Stimulus: The formerly neutral stimulus which after pairing produces the response

Conditioned Response: The response when produced by the Conditioned Stimulus (formerly neutral stimulus).

Involuntary behavior: Behavior that can be modified through the use of Classical Conditioning.

slide8
Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)

Russian Physiologist

Won a Nobel Prize for studying digestion in dogs

pavlov and classical conditioning
Pavlov and Classical Conditioning

Conditioning:

The process of learning associations between environmental events (stimuli) and responses

PAVLOV’S DOGS (re-enactment, of course)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CpoLxEN54ho

pavlov s dogs
Pavlov’s Dogs
  • Digestive reflexes and salivation
  • Psychic secretion
neutral stimulus bell
Neutral Stimulus—Bell

Does not normally elicit a response or reflex action by itself

  • a bell ringing
  • a color
  • a furry object
unconditioned stimulus food
Unconditioned Stimulus—Food

Always elicits a reflex action: an unconditioned response

  • food
  • blast of air
  • noise
unconditioned response salivation
Unconditioned Response —Salivation

A response to an unconditioned stimulus—naturally occurring

  • Salivation at smell of food
  • Eye blinks at blast of air
  • Startle reaction in babies
conditioned stimulus bell
Conditioned Stimulus—Bell
  • The stimulus that was originally neutral becomes conditioned after it has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus
  • Will eventually elicit the unconditioned response by itself
conditioned response
Conditioned Response

The original unconditioned response becomes conditioned after it has been elicited by the neutral stimulus

slide17
JOHN B. WATSON (1878-1958)
  • "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select–doctor, lawyer, artist–regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors" (p. 104)
  • WATSON, JOHN B. 1930. Behaviorism, revised edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE
slide18
BEFORE CONDITIONING

Rat (NS) No Fear response

Loud Noise Fear Response

DURING CONDITIONING

Rat + Loud Noise Fear Response

AFTER CONDITIONING

Rat Fear Response

ethical issues
Ethical Issues
  • Not likely this study would be done today!!
slide20
Rescorla, Robert A. (1988). Pavlovian Conditioning: It’s not what you think it is. American Psychologist, Vol 43(3),151-160.
  • Consideration of Rescorla Article
    • The circumstances that produce Pavlovian conditioning are not as simple and automatic as an introductory discussion might lead you to believe
    • Conditioning involves more than contiguous pairing that produces associations between stimuli
    • Rather Conditioning involves learning relations between events
    • Multiple associations may be made during conditioning
    • Ultimately associations represent useful information that is coded in the organism
    • Not all stimuli are equally associable and some types conditioning happens more quickly
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