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Integrating Employment Services with Community-Based Clinical Programs: Lessons Learned from the Ways to Work Demonstration Project. Alysia Pascaris New York Work Exchange, CVMHA Rita Liegner and Richard Meador Riverdale Mental Health Association Karin Abrahamian and Anthony Cox

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Integrating Employment Services with Community-Based Clinical Programs: Lessons Learned from the Ways to Work Demonstration Project

Alysia Pascaris

New York Work Exchange, CVMHA

Rita Liegner and Richard Meador

Riverdale Mental Health Association

Karin Abrahamian and Anthony Cox

Brooklyn Bureau of Community Services

Colleen Gillespie

Center for Health and Public Service, NYU Wagner

NYAPRS Conference

September 30, 2004

New York Work Exchange

why we re here today and who we are
Why We’re Here Today and Who We Are
  • Why?: To share multiple and practical perspectives on the process of integrating employment services
  • Who we are (and what we’ll talk about)?
    • Person who conceived of and oversees the implementation of the Ways to Work Demonstration
      • Why implement the Ways to Work Project?
        • Immediate and more long-term goals
    • Evaluator of the Ways to Work Demonstration
      • What are the outcomes of these programs?
      • How did these programs implement this new approach?
        • Organizational change, staff change, consumer change
    • Staff from two of the Ways to Work Projects (including both clinical and vocational staff)
      • What lessons did they learn from setting up and running these programs?

New York Work Exchange

what is the ways to work project
What is the Ways to Work Project?
  • Demonstration Project: Integrating Supported Employment and Clinical Services
  • Research Project: Process and Outcome Evaluation
    • Learn from Staff
      • Administrators, Clinicians and Vocational Staff
    • Learn from Consumers
  • A Bridge Between Research and Practice
    • Application of Lessons Learned
    • Increase Employment Goals
    • Support Organizational Change Process

New York Work Exchange

what is the ways to work project continued
What is the Ways to Work Project…(continued)
  • Training and Technical Assistance
    • NH-Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center
      • Principles of Evidence-Based Supported Employment
      • The Role of Work in Recovery
      • Off-site and On-site
    • New York Work Exchange
      • Program of Study
        • Workshops
        • Seminars

New York Work Exchange

why do ways to work
Why Do Ways to Work?
  • Trends in Mental Health Policy
    • Accountability and Outcomes
    • Funding
    • Evidence-Based Practice
  • Consumer Needs and Preferences
  • Doing More than the Status Quo

New York Work Exchange

beginning ways to work
Requests for Proposals

Guidelines: Core Evidence-Based Principles of SE

Competitive, Integrated, Minimum Wage

Integrated Rehabilitation and Mental Health

Choice and Preferences

Rapid Job Search

Ongoing Support

Staffing

Funds

Employment Staff

Eligibility

Expressed Desire

Minimum Exclusionary Criteria

Outcomes

Work-related Outcomes

Beginning Ways to Work

New York Work Exchange

the ways to work programs
The Ways to Work Programs
  • 5 agencies
    • Brooklyn Bureau of Community Services CDTP Project Moving On
    • Jewish Board of Family & Children’s Services CDTP Coney Island CSS Program
    • Riverdale Mental Health Association CDTP
    • Transitional Services, Inc CDTP

Jamaica Consultation Center

    • Postgraduate Center for Mental Health CDTP & Clinic

Westside CDTP and Outpatient MH Clinic

New York Work Exchange

diversity of agencies hosting ways to work programs
Diversity of Agencies Hosting Ways to Work Programs
  • Location
    • 4 NYC Boroughs (Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens)
    • Community location ranges from vibrant, resource-rich to isolated, barren neighborhoods
  • Size
    • From about 1,500 clients served/yr to 55,000
  • Emphasis/Expertise
    • Some with little employment/vocational experience
    • Others with extensive employment/vocational experience

New York Work Exchange

ways to work clinical settings
Ways to Work Clinical Settings
  • Clinical Settings
    • 4 programs associated with CDTPs
    • 1 program associated with both CDTP and clinic
  • Size of Clinical Settings
    • CDTPs: 50 – 100 participants
    • Clinic: approximately 250 participants

New York Work Exchange

ways to work cdtp populations
Ways to Work CDTP Populations
  • Age (mostly adults, 18 – 55)
    • One program serves mostly older adults, 75% > 40
    • One program serves more younger adults
  • Varied Housing
    • adult home residents
    • homeless individuals
    • 40% agency-associated housing
  • Gender
    • 3 programs have a majority of men, 2 a majority of women
  • Race/Ethnicity
    • 3 programs majority white (50% - 55%)
    • 2 programs majority African American (52% - 76%)
    • Representation of Latinos/as same across all 5 (15% - 24%)

New York Work Exchange

the ways to work approach
The Ways to Work Approach

Determine Who Wants To Work

Consumer Choice

(e.g., sign-up list)

CDTP/Clinic

Participants

Other Supports

Psychosocial Clubs

Family Education

Housing

Benefits Counseling

Ways to Work Program

Assessment

Job Profile

Career Interests/Goals

Rapid Job Search

Individualized Job Development

Individualized Job Placement

Job Support

(Follow Along Supports)

Job Coaching

Peer Support

Family Support

  • On-the-Job Assessment
  • Regular Communication
  • Management of
    • Medications
    • Symptoms

Work Incorporated Into All TX Goals/Plans

  • Integration of Work & Clinical Goals
  • Team Meetings/Case Conferences
  • Regular Communication

Integration with CDTP and

Mental Health Treatment Services

New York Work Exchange

principles of supported employment
The goal is to assist consumers in obtaining competitive and satisfying jobs in community

The work pays at least minimum wage

People are employed in a work setting that includes non-disabled co-workers

Service agency provides ongoing support

Intended for consumers with a desire to work

Includes people with the most severe disabilities

Eligibility for Supported Employment services is based on consumer choice

Consumer preferences are important

Supported employment is integrated with mental health treatment

Competitive employment is the goal

Job search process starts soon after a consumer expresses interest in working

Follow-along supports are continuous for employed consumers

Principles of Supported Employment

New York Work Exchange

consumer experience of the ways to work program one example
Consumer Experience of the Ways to Work Program: One Example
  • 40 yr old man
    • Realized several years ago that he wants to work
      • Cares about what people in the “real world” feel about “people like him”
      • Wants to prove to doctors, therapists, family members that he can take care of himself, get a job (tired of people telling him what to do and what he can do)
      • Pays his own bills, does own laundry and shopping, self medicates
    • Has been enrolled in CDTP for about 2 ½ years
      • Hears voices but knows he can work through the voices because they have been with him all his life
    • Scant work and education background
      • Worked 3 summer jobs in the 1960s
      • 6 mos of high school

New York Work Exchange

one man s story continued
One Man’s Story ….continued
  • Agreed to work with Employment Specialist as a team
    • Worked on resume together
    • Talked about his skills and interests
      • What things made him feel like he was accomplishing something?
      • What did he like and dislike doing?
      • What were his interests and hobbies?
    • Immediately began canvassing the neighborhood
      • Went to stores, filled out applications, went on interviews
        • Wore his tie and interview clothes but refused to wear his upper dentures as he felt that must hire him with the real person showing
    • Said he’d like to work as a messenger
      • Studied the NYC subway maps
      • Got an interview – went to interview on his own, completed the application, and even included a cover letter with his resume
      • HE GOT THE JOB!

New York Work Exchange

evaluation of the ways to work programs
Evaluation of the Ways to Work Programs
  • Two major goals
    • To document the outcomes of integrating employment services with clinical services
      • Do the Ways to Work programs work?
    • To describe the process of implementing and sustaining the Ways to Work projects in order to be able to share that information with other providers seeking ways to most effectively promote competitive employment within clinical settings
      • How do the Ways to Work programs work?
      • What had to change? How was that change achieved?

New York Work Exchange

characteristics of w2w participants
Characteristics of W2W Participants

Gender

Race/Ethnicity

Asian

Latino/a

White

African American

Male

College

Less than HS

Some College

HS

Education

New York Work Exchange

characteristics of w2w participants18
Characteristics of W2W Participants

Housing Situation

Primary Diagnosis

Depression

Assisted

Ind/Family

Adult Home

Shelter

Other

Schizophrenia

New York Work Exchange

job outcomes
Job Outcomes
  • 58 jobs obtained over two years
    • 51 unique jobs (190 participants)
      • 27% employment rate
  • Time in Ways to Work programs until employed
    • Year 1: 4.8 months and Year 2: 8.4 months
  • Job tenure (5.5 months)
    • Year 1: 7.7 months and Year 2: 2.6 months

New York Work Exchange

characteristics of jobs
Characteristics of Jobs
  • Types of Jobs
    • Security Guard
    • Newspaper Salesperson
    • Retail
    • Messenger
    • Maintenance
    • Tutor
    • Administrative Assistant
    • Telemarketer
    • Construction Worker
    • Child Care Worker
  • Wages
    • $6.75/hr
    • $5.75 - $15.00
  • # Hours
    • 23 hrs/week
    • 6 – 40 hrs/wk

New York Work Exchange

what did the ways to work programs do to help 27 of participants get jobs 1
What Did the Ways to Work Programs DO to Help 27% of Participants Get Jobs? (1)
  • Changed agency structure
    • Integrated employment and clinical services
      • Employment Specialist attends all team meetings
    • Re-allocated resources
      • 1-on-1 individualized sessions, small caseload
    • Changed the intake process
      • Asked all consumers about career goals
      • Eliminated entry criteria
    • Created new way of delivering services
      • Not group-based
      • Job search begins immediately, no “readiness” work

New York Work Exchange

what did the ways to work programs do to help 27 of participants get jobs 2
What Did the Ways to Work Programs DO to Help 27% of Participants Get Jobs? (2)
  • Changed attitudes
    • Changed clinicians’ beliefs about consumers’ ability to work
      • Provided staff with latest evidence on what works
        • David Lynde, Evidence-Based Practice Project
      • Advertised unexpected successes
      • Shared information about consumers’ abilities outside of CDTP
    • Changed consumers expectations about what was possible
      • Provided role models
      • Encouraged peer support
      • Responded immediately to consumers’ job interests
    • Helped families support employment goals
      • Provided education about benefits and working

New York Work Exchange

what did the ways to work programs do to help 27 of participants get jobs 3
What Did the Ways to Work Programs DO to Help 27% of Participants Get Jobs? (3)
  • Changed How Jobs Were Developed
    • Developed specific jobs for specific people
      • Individualized
      • Explored full range of consumers’ employment-related goals to identify job matches
      • Used local resources
        • Went out into community with consumers
    • Encouraged staff to allow consumers to get feedback from the real world on what was realistic
  • Changed How Failures Were Viewed
    • Encouraged consumers and staff to view jobs as transitions
      • Failures are instructive
      • Failures are expected and unavoidable

New York Work Exchange

how d they do all that
How’d They Do All That?
  • Lessons Learned
    • Radiating impact of initial changes
      • Small changes paved the way for bigger changes
    • Strategies for overcoming barriers to change
      • Realistic assessments of how much effort and time is required to achieve changes
    • Tensions between ideal and real
      • Values and philosophical approaches
      • Situational and contextual constraints
    • Maintaining and sustaining changes

New York Work Exchange

integrating employment services
Integrating Employment Services
  • Communication between Clinical and Employment Staff
  • Sharing Information
  • Expertise/Training Background
  • Culture Clashes
  • Role of Employment Specialist

New York Work Exchange

changing attitudes
Changing Attitudes
  • Beliefs about CDTP Consumers and Employment
  • Clinicians’ Attitudes About Consumers’ and Jobs
  • Consumers’ Expectations About Working
    • Fear of Failure
    • Culture of Dependency
    • Access to Role Models/Success Stories
    • Benefits
  • Family Members
  • Other Providers
    • Housing

New York Work Exchange

job coaching and support
Job Coaching and Support
  • Interpersonal Skills vs. Job Skills
  • Difficulties of Disclosure
    • Supporting Consumer Choice
    • Disclosure vs. Job Coaching/Support
    • Disclosure vs. Reasonable Accommodations
    • Disclosure vs. Keeping Employer as Future Prospect
  • Groups vs. Individual Meetings and 1-on-1 Work
  • Consumers’ Expectations About Working
    • Fear of Failure
    • Culture of Dependency
    • Access to Role Models/Success Stories
    • Benefits
  • Family Members and Other Providers (Housing)

New York Work Exchange

job development
Job Development
  • Individualized Job Development vs. Slots
    • Balancing Needs of Consumers with Wanting to Maintain Employer as Future Prospect for Others
  • Volunteer Positions vs. Competitive Jobs
    • Transitional?
    • Varied Approaches to Match Diversity of Consumer Needs/Preferences

New York Work Exchange

maintaining ways to work approaches
Maintaining Ways to Work Approaches
  • Initial Success May Wane Over Time
    • Most motivated, most capable consumers may get jobs fast
    • Remaining may need more encouragement, support, time
      • Jobs and job experiences that help them
        • Get closer to identifying their career goals
        • Get closer to achieving their career goals
      • More work in changing expectations, addressing fears
  • Role of the Employment Specialist
    • Rare set of skills (generalist w/ specialist employment skills)
    • Alone (no one else like them, no “home” department)
    • Burn-out/Turnover
    • Providing proper balance of challenge and support

New York Work Exchange

sustaining ways to work
Sustaining Ways to Work
  • Organizational Change
  • Attitude Change
  • Billing, Billing, Billing
  • PROS

New York Work Exchange