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Fats and Proteins. Smoking point? Do not use olive oil to deep-fry Adds flavor, tenderness, crispness Prevents sticking Keep tightly covered; picks up other flavors easily Store properly to prevent becoming rancid. Cooking with fats. Solid fat at room temp Mainly from animal foods.

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cooking with fats

Smoking point?

  • Do not use olive oil to deep-fry
  • Adds flavor, tenderness, crispness
  • Prevents sticking
  • Keep tightly covered; picks up other flavors easily
  • Store properly to prevent becoming rancid
Cooking with fats
saturated fat
Solid fat at room temp

Mainly from animal foods

Saturated Fat
saturated fat1
Hold in body heat

Shock absorber

Carries vitamins A,D,E,K

Formation of body cells

10% of daily calories

Saturated Fat
unsaturated fat
Liquid at room temp

From plant resources

Jobs same as saturated but don’t carry cholesterol

Unsaturated Fat
cholesterol
White, waxy fat made by the body and part of every cell

Only in ANIMAL foods

Body does not need extra because body makes enough

Extra causes clogged arteries and high blood pressure

Needed to make sex hormones and bile acids

Cholesterol
complete protein
Contains ALL amino acids needed by the body

Beef, bison, pork, veal, mutton, lamb, fish, poultry, variety meats liver, kidney, heart, tongue, sweetbreads(thymus gland), tripe (stomach), brains, chitterlings (cleaned intestines)

Complete Protein
complete protein functions
Build and repair cells

Make enzymes, hormones, antibodies

Help transport iron and oxygen

Provide energy (12% of daily calories)

Complete Protein Functions
incomplete protein
Contains some of the amino acids needed by the body; needs to be eaten in combinations to make a complete protein

Grains/dairy or grains/legumes or legumes/dairy

Incomplete Protein
cooking with proteins

Destroys harmful bacteria

  • Improves flavor
  • Makes easier to digest
Cooking with Proteins
tenderizing techniques

Collagen broken down during cooking; can be aided with chemicals

    • Meat tenderizers, marinades,
    • Elastin not broken down during cooking but can be mechanically
      • Pounding, grinding, cubing, etc
  • Overcooking and cooking at too high a temperature causes toughness
Tenderizing Techniques
choosing meat cuts

Look for marbling – streaks of fat thru meat

  • By bone (pg 239) -
    • Tender – t-bone, rib, hip (pin, wedge, flat)
    • Not as tender – round, neck (blade)
  • By name (pg 236) –
    • Parts of animal not exercised (across back) are the most tender – loin, rib
    • Exercised parts need some kind of tenderizing – some more than others – arm, chuck, shank, flank
Choosing meat cuts
dry cooking methods for tender cuts

Roasting – large tender cuts; cook fat side up; allow to sit 10-15 min before cutting

  • Broiling/grilling – direct flame; thin cuts like steaks/chops; season after browned to seal in juices
  • Panbroiling – like broiling but in skillet on stovetop; pour off fat that accumulates
  • panfrying – in skillet w/o pouring off accumulated fats; stir-frying
Dry cooking methodsfor tender cuts
moist cooking methods for less tender cuts

Use less tender cuts of meat

  • Braising – brown outside the cook in small amount of liquid with tightly covered lid; low heat
  • Stewing – meat covered in simmering liquid
Moist cookingmethodsfor less-tender cuts