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Semester 1 Review. Anatomical directional terms Cells and tissues Skin and the integumentary system Nervous system. Special Senses. Eye and Ear. Eye and Vision. Quick Facts about the Eye. 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eye Approx. 1 inch in diameter

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semester 1 review
Semester 1 Review
  • Anatomical directional terms
  • Cells and tissues
  • Skin and the integumentary system
  • Nervous system
special senses

Special Senses

Eye and Ear

quick facts about the eye
Quick Facts about the Eye
  • 70% of all sensory receptors are in the eye
  • Approx. 1 inch in diameter
  • Uses light to gather information about environment
external eye
External Eye
  • Eyelid
  • Eyelashes
  • Medial canthus
  • Lateral canthus
accessory structures of the eye
Accessory Structures of the Eye
  • Tarsal glands (within eyelids)
  • Conjuctiva
  • Lacrimal apparatus
    • Lacrimal glands Lacrimal canals and lacrimal sac Nasolacrimal duct  nasal cavity
    • Lacrimal secretions are made up of a dilute salt solution and lysozyme (antibiotic)
eye overview
Eye Overview
  • Made of tunics and humors
  • Tunics: layers surrounding the eye and it’s parts
  • Humors: fluid areas within the tunics to give eye pressure and keep it’s shape
  • Sclera: outermost tunic
    • Thick, white covering
    • Anterior portion modified into cornea
      • No blood vessels
  • Vascular tunic: middle tunic
    • Supplies blood to eye
    • 2 parts:
      • Choroid (posterior)
      • Ciliary body (anterior) attaches lens using ciliaryzonule (suspensory ligaments)
  • Iris
  • Pupil
  • Sensory tunic: innermost tunic
  • Retina: contains photoreceptors
    • Rods: black, white and shades of gray in dim light, peripheral vision
    • Cones: color receptors (what colors?)
  • Signals sent from retina to optic nerve to brain
  • Macula lutea: yellowish area near back of the eye
    • Fovea Centralis: depression in the center of Macula lutea
      • High concentration of cones
      • Produces sharpest vision
  • Optic disc: nerve fibers and blood vessels enter and leave the eye
    • Contains a blind spot
      • Humors: fluid filled areas in eye
  • Aqueous humor
    • Anterior to lens
    • Constantly replaced to bring nutrients to areas without blood supply
      • Secreted by choroid
      • Scleralvernous sinus (canal of Schlemm) – at junction of sclera and cornea
  • Vitreous humor
    • Posterior to lens
    • Constant pressure to give eye shape (intraocular pressure)
  • Biconvex structure
  • Behind cornea, iris, pupil
  • Bends to focus on objects
how does the eye work
How does the eye work?
  • Light is refracted by each layer it moves through
    • Humors, lens, cornea
  • Image is shown on retina (upside-down) and sent to brain
  • Brain flips the image and uses other cues to make sense of image
how does the eye work1
How does the eye work?
  • Nerve impulses from the retina leave the eye through the optic nerve.
  • Optic nerves from each eye meet at the optic chiasm.
how does the eye work2
How does the eye work?
  • At the optic chiasm, the impulses from the medial portion of each retina cross over to the opposite side
  • Leaving the optic chiasm are the optic tracts, which fuse in the thalamus
  • Leaving the thalamus are the optic radiations, which then join to the occipital lobe (visual cortex) of the brain where interpretation occurs
how does the eye work3
How does the eye work?
  • Result is that each side of the brain receives input from both eyes.
  • Binocular vision – each eye sends an image to the brain, resulting in 3-dimensional vision.
problems within the eye
Problems within the Eye
  • Cateracts
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Nearsightedness – distant objects are blurry
  • Farsightedness – close objects are blurry
  • Astigmatism
  • Glaucoma
additional sheep eye questions
Additional Sheep Eye Questions
  • How did the fat and muscle tissue differ in the sheep eye?
  • What is the function of the choroid coat?
  • How is the tapetumlucidum used in the sheep eye?
overview of the ear
Overview of the Ear
  • 3 parts: outer, middle, inner
  • Mechanoreceptor: respond to physical forces (sound vibrations, movement of the head)
outer ear
Outer Ear
  • Pinnaor auricle – external ear
    • Surrounds auditory canal into ear canal
  • External acoustic meatus(external auditory canal) – skin lined canal between outside of the head and the eardrum
    • Glands in skin (ceruminous glands) secrete cerumento protect ear
middle ear
Middle Ear
  • Tympanic membrane
  • Ossicles
    • hammer/malleus
    • anvil/incus
    • stirrup/stapes
middle ear1
Middle Ear
  • Oval window
  • Round window
  • Pharyngotympanic tube (auditory/Eustachian tube)– connects ear and throat and will open and close to keep pressure within ear the same as external pressure
inner ear
Inner Ear
  • Made up of bony chambers called the osseous (bony) labyrinth
  • 3 divisions:
    • Cochlea
    • Vestibule
    • Semicircular canals
inner ear1
Inner Ear
  • Filled with fluid called perilymph
  • Within labyrinth are membranes (membranous labyrinth)
    • Filled with endolymph
inner ear2
Inner Ear
  • Semicircular canals and vestibule are responsible for balance and detecting motion.
  • Cochlea is responsible for hearing.
  • Organ of Corti
    • Within the cochlea
    • Basilar membrane
      • Anchors hair cells
    • Tectoral membrane
      • Above hair cells
  • Different sounds will vibrate membranes at different frequency
how sound travels to the brain
How sound travels to the brain
  • Send sound signals along cochlear nerve to the temporal lobe (auditory cortex)
  • Two ears help us determine where sounds are coming from
  • Over-stimulation of cochlear nerve allows us to “tune out” certain sounds
hearing video
Hearing Video
equilibrium and balance
Equilibrium and Balance
  • Vestibular Apparatus: equilibrium detectors in the vestibule and semicircular canals
  • Send signals to brain through vestibular nerve to cerebellum
static equilibrium
Static equilibrium
  • Vestibule of the inner ear
  • Respond to gravity, balance
    • Utricle(hairs are upright)
    • Saccule(hairs are horizontal)
  • Maculae: patch of hairs and supporting cells on the utricle and saccule
  • Otolithicmembrane(gel-like material) contains otoliths(calcium carbonate stones) to detect movement of head
dynamic equilibrium
Dynamic equilibrium
  • Semicircular Canals
    • Anterior canal
    • Posterior canal
    • Lateral canal
  • Movement in all directions
semicircular canals
Semicircular Canals
  • Membranous canals within the bony canal ends in an ampulla
    • Communicate with the utricle
semicircular canals within the ampulla
Semicircular Canals (within the ampulla)
  • Crista ampullaris: contains hairs to detect movement
  • Cupula (gel cap) on the hairs of the christaampullaris
    • Movement bends hairs, cupula, endolymph
dynamic equilibrium1
Dynamic Equilibrium
  • Cupula on surface of the crista ampullaris bends hairs in response to motion.