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English for Science and Technology (EST) PowerPoint Presentation
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English for Science and Technology (EST)

English for Science and Technology (EST)

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English for Science and Technology (EST)

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  1. 科技英语 English for Science and Technology (EST) By Yuyin He Foreign Languages School Beihang University English for Science and Technology

  2. Chapter 1 • An Brief Introduction

  3. Learning Objectives Students are supposed to 1. master the language features of scientific discourse; learn how to achieve nominalization in the sentence; 3. raise their awareness of scientific rhetoric. English for Science and Technology

  4. Definition Characteristics Concerning fields Knowledge tips English for Science and Technology

  5. Ⅰ Definition • EST is an acronym. It stands for English for Science and Technology. • (?)EST= Science and Technology + English (!)EST ≠ Science and Technology + English English for Science and Technology

  6. Back • EST is a functional variety of modern English. • This type of English aims to serve science and technology . • EST can be defined as knowledge concerning science and technology expressed in English. English for Science and Technology

  7. Characteristics Accuracy Clarity Simplicity Passive voice Sentence structure Technical terms Tables, figures and diagrams English for Science and Technology

  8. Back Ⅱ Characteristics • Accuracy We adjust the airconditioner to 20℃. The regulator regulates the airconditioner to the set temperature. adjust 调定 regulate 校定 set=adjusted 设定的 English for Science and Technology

  9. 2. Clarity EST sentences appear to be clear with easily-identified main clause pattern. * The intention was that the journal should continue in this vein with its traditional function of acting as a midwife between specialized laboratories and the wider audience outside. English for Science and Technology

  10. Experience has shown that there is a particular need of means by which people who used to be in academic life, but who are now elsewhere, in industry perhaps, may renewe acquaintance at first hand with research. English for Science and Technology

  11. Back • Clarity is most successfully achieved by the sentences beginning with “it”. • *It follows that if the ambient PH value is made to be somewhat acidic, for example, equivalent to about the acidity of citric acid, hydrolysis occurs readily whereby phosphoric acid in a free state is again formed and passed into the solution. English for Science and Technology

  12. 3. Simplicity ① acronym laser: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation radar: radio detecting and ranging sonar: sound navigation and ranging English for Science and Technology

  13. ② shortening: one or two words standing for the whole name diesel diesel engine driver screw driver jet jet plane English for Science and Technology

  14. ③ blending: a new word formed by only part of each word infranics infrared electronics mobot mobile robot heliox helium oxygen English for Science and Technology

  15. ④ affixes bio-【GK bios=life】意指“生物、生命”。 bioethics 生物道德学 biohazard 生物灾害 biolinguistics 生物语言学 biomedicine 生物医学 biosatellite 载生物卫星 English for Science and Technology

  16. radio-【L radius=ray】意指“射电、无线电、射线”。 radiolocation 无线电定位 radiophotography 无线电传真 radioacoustic 无线电声学的 radiotelemetering 无线电遥测 radiosterilize 以放射线消毒 radioisotope 放射性同位素 radiochemistry 放射化学 English for Science and Technology

  17. ⑤ nominalization *The phenomenon in which heat is transferred from one molecule to the next is known as conduction. The transfer of heat from one molecule to the next is known as conduction. English for Science and Technology

  18. Back *If we know the force on the gear we can determine its size. Knowledge of the force on the gear makes possible the determination of its size. English for Science and Technology

  19. Back 4. Passive voice for objectivity for emphasis *Machine tools may be classified into six groups. *No work can be done without energy. English for Science and Technology

  20. 5. Sentence structures *The cables are normally made continuous through the tops of the towers, down through side towers, where these exist, and thence into the anchorage. English for Science and Technology

  21. Back *The function of the divergent section is to reduce to a minimum the tendency of the fluid to turbulence, and thus to ensure that the fluid flow is as smooth as possible. comment: several “to” structures with different functions in grammar. English for Science and Technology

  22. Back 6. Technical terms highly-technical words semi-technical words 7. Tables, figures and diagrams used to make EST language clear and easily understood. English for Science and Technology

  23. Back Ⅲ concerned fields *ESST English for Specialized Science and Technology *ECST English for Common Science and Technology English for Science and Technology

  24. 科技英语 Chapter 2 Engineering By Yuyin He Foreign Languages School Beihang University English for Science and Technology

  25. Learning Objectives Students are supposed to 1. master the key words and language points; learn how to give definitions; 3. raise their awareness of aerospace engineering in their specializations. English for Science and Technology

  26. Text A Text B Text C Knowledge tips English for Science and Technology

  27. Text A Engineering Compound dictation concerning aerospace Lead-in Text analysis Words and expressions Sentence structures English for Science and Technology

  28. Back Lead-in Most of you are engineering majors. What are your understanding of engineering? What do you think would be most demanding for studying engineering? English for Science and Technology

  29. Text Analysis – Structure Back (Para. 1-3) Definition and ___________________ engineering a brief introduction to _______________ and engineering Problem solving (Paras. 4-7) All engineering _________ branches (Paras. 8) English for Science and Technology

  30. Words and Expressions • application • optimum • conversion • define • principle • apparatus • cognizance • forecast • innovation • derive • ingenious • sewage • special • maintain • involve • acknowledge • complexity • desirable • deductive • adequacy • Phrases & Expressions • as respects • derive from • apply to • bear on • is reduced to • in terms of • add to • be based on English for Science and Technology

  31. 科学原理 生产过程 拓展训练 实际问题 系统分析 选择问题 安全要求 考虑到 常识 scientific principles manufacturing processes extensive training practical problems systems analysis select the problem safety requirements take into account common sense Expressions: from Chinese to English English for Science and Technology

  32. 系统化的知识 简化了的问题 科学概念 以合适的形式 复杂性各异 初步决定 给定的成本 简化为 创造性的综合 vary in complexity a given cost systematized knowledge a preliminary decision is reduced to creative synthesis the simplified problem in an appropriate form scientific concepts Expressions: Matching Game Back English for Science and Technology

  33. Sentence structures Inversion The Usage of “:” Contrast Pronouns in the long sentence Process descriptions Parallel structures English for Science and Technology

  34. inversion • Associated with engineering is a great body of special knowledge; preparation for professional practice involves extensive training in the application of that knowledge. English for Science and Technology

  35. Back inversion • Of great importance is the process of creative synthesis or design, putting ideas together to create a new and optimum solution. • First comes an analysis of the situation and a preliminary decision on a plan of attack. English for Science and Technology

  36. contrast • The counterpart of the military engineer was the civil engineer, who applied essentially the same knowledge and skills to designing buildings, streets, water supplies, sewage systems, and other projects. English for Science and Technology

  37. Back Process description • First comes an analysis of the situation and a preliminary decision on a plan of attack. In line with this plan, the problem is reduced to a more categorical question that can be clearly stated. The stated question is then answered by deductive reasoning from known principles or by creative synthesis, as in a new design. The answer or design is always checked for accuracy and adequacy. Finally, the results for the simplified problem are interpreted in terms of the original problem and reported in an appropriate form. English for Science and Technology

  38. Back Parallel structures • Especially in major functions of all engineering branches English for Science and Technology

  39. Text B Aerospace Engineering Lead-in Text analysis Words and usages Definition Sentences Sentences with “as” English for Science and Technology

  40. Back Lead-in What is the English version for your specialization in our university? How is your major associated with aerospace? English for Science and Technology

  41. Text Analysis – Structure Back (Para. 1-3) Aerospace___________ engineering Aerospace _________ engineers (Paras. 4-5) _________ of aerospace engineering Influences (Paras. 6-7) English for Science and Technology

  42. blending words avionics aviation electronics infranics infrared electronics mobot mobile robot heliox helium oxygen English for Science and Technology

  43. words concerning “aero-” • aerospace • aeronautics • aerodynamics English for Science and Technology

  44. Demand-Require • The design of a flight vehicle demands a knowledge of many engineering disciplines. • The construction of large towers, buildings, and bridges requires predictions of aerodynamic forces and the creation of an optimum design to minimize these forces. • Companies engaged in satellite communications require an understanding of orbital mechanics, trajectories, acceleration forces, and aerodynamic heating and an overall knowledge of the spacecraft industry. English for Science and Technology

  45. demand • The design of a flight vehicle demands a knowledge of many engineering disciplines. • The largest demand for aerospace engineers comes from the transport and fighter aircraft, missile, spacecraft, and general aviation industries. • Demanding a demanding job a demanding wife a demanding kid English for Science and Technology

  46. Definition Sentences • Aerospace means the atmosphere and outer space considered as a whole. 航天空间是指地球大气层内外的整体空间。 • Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space. 宇宙空间(Aerospace)包括地球的大气层及其以上的空间。这个词习惯上用于指航空航天工业(Aerospace),即研究、设计、生产、操控及维护在大气和空间中运行的运载工具的产业。 • Aeronautics refers to the theory and practice of navigation through air or space. 航空学指的是在空气或太空中航行的理论和实践。 English for Science and Technology

  47. Definition Sentences • Aeronautics refers to the theory and practice of navigation through air or space. 航空学指的是在空气或太空中航行的理论和实践。 • Aeronautics is the science involved with the study, design, and manufacture of flight-capable machines, or the techniques of operating aircraft. 航空学是有关研究、设计、生产可飞行装置的学科,也包括操纵飞行器的技术。 English for Science and Technology

  48. Definition Sentence Pattern: N is n + attributive clause • Electrochemistry is that branch of chemistry which deals with interactions between electrical current and chemical changes. • 电化学是研究电流和化学变化之间关系的化学分支。 • Elevators are control surfaces, usually at the rear of an aircraft, which control the aircraft's orientation by changing the pitch of the aircraft, and so also the angle of attack of the wing. • 升降舵是可控机翼表面,通常安装在飞机尾部,通过俯仰控制以及迎风角度的控制来调整飞机的方向。 • Landing gear is the structure (usually wheels) that supports an aircraft on the ground . • 起落架是一种可以在地面上支撑飞机的结构。 English for Science and Technology

  49. Definition Sentence Pattern: N is n + attributive clause • Aeronautics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the motion of gases (especially air) and their effects on bodies in the flow. • 空气动力学是力学的一个分支,它研究气体(特别是空气)的运动以及它们对气流中的物体产生的作用。 • Aerodynamics is a branch of dynamics concerned with studying the motion of air, particularly when it interacts with a moving object. • 空气动力学是是动力学的一个分支,它专门研究空气运动,特别是与运动物体相互作用的情况。 • N is n + attributive clause N specific; to be define n general English for Science and Technology

  50. More on Patterns for definition sentences A word or idea means + a definition . Is called A definition +is known as+ a word or idea . referred to as A word or idea +an appositive phrase functioning as a definition. English for Science and Technology