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Aquatic Biomes & Ecosystems 1.  Define an estuary : transitional area where a river flows into the ocean PowerPoint Presentation
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Aquatic Biomes & Ecosystems 1.  Define an estuary : transitional area where a river flows into the ocean. Estuaries can be bays, sounds, coves, inlets, fjords. Galveston Bay Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers. 2. Name and describe the 2 types of free-drifting microscopic organisms:

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Aquatic Biomes & Ecosystems

1.  Define an estuary:

transitional area where a river flows into the ocean

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Estuaries can be bays, sounds, coves, inlets, fjords

Galveston Bay

Trinity and San Jacinto Rivers

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2. Name and describe the 2 types of free-drifting microscopic organisms:

phytoplankton—photosynthesizing algae found near the ocean’s surface

zooplankton—tiny animals that feed on plankton

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Freshwater Biomes

3.       List the two types of freshwater biomes:

standing water

running water

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Lakes

 4.       The main producers of a lake ecosystems are

phytoplankton

 5. Name and describe the three life zones:

  1. littoral zone—closest to shore

  2. limnetic zone—sunlit body of the lake

  3. profundal zone—below the level of light

penetration

~ Being able to draw the zones of a lake will help

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6. Name and describe the four types of aquatic plants:

1. emergents—rooted in shallow littoral zone and grow out of water 

2. surface plants—grow on surface, e.g. waterlilies 

3. underwater plants- e.g. watermilfoils 

4. phytoplankton—microscopic drifting plants

Which is most important “plant” to a lake ecosystem?

Diatoms – phytoplankton

with silica in their shells

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7. Name and describe the five groups of nonproducers/consumers of a lake ecosystem

 1. zooplankton—small animals that feed on phytoplankton

 2. Surface insects—insects that walk on water surface 

3. subsurface-dwelling insects—live just beneath the water’s surface 

4. NEKTON--free-swimming organisms

 5. BENTHOS—bottom-dwelling organisms

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8. Rivers & Streams Describe how the animals and plants must adapt to the following water flow rates:

* Rapidly or fast moving water:

  Must be adapted to clinging to rocks and gravel or avoiding fast flow

 * Calm running water:

  Algae grows on rocks. Many insects and insect larvae. Fewer problems with water flow.

* Slow moving water:

  Animals and plants adapted to muddy sediments, less oxygen

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Marshes, Swamps, & Bogs

 9. Characterize the plants of each:

 Marshes:

  Soft-stemmed herbaceous plants such as cattails and pickerelweed.

Swamps:

  Dominated by woody plants (trees and shrubs)

Bogs:

  Floating mat of vegetation adapted to acidic conditions. Evergreen trees and shrubs, often with a carpet of sphagnum moss. Insectivorous plants.

Sphagnum moss is absorptive and extremely acidic,

inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi

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BOG

Bog

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10. Characterize the soil of each:

 Marshes: rich in organic material, sometimes dries out

 Swamps: Forest floor periodically flooded. Poorly drained forests or swamps.

 Bogs: Highly acidic, poorly drained. Deep deposits of peat.

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10. Characterize the soil of each:

 Marshes:

  rich in organic material, sometimes dries out

 Swamps:

Forest floor periodically flooded. Poorly drained forests or swamps.

 Bogs:

  Highly acidic, poorly drained. Deep deposits of peat.

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11. Marine Biomes  Name and describe the three major life zones of oceans:

 1. Intertidal zone (includes estuaries)—periodic exposure to air and sun. Wave action.

*Estuaries have brackish water (mixture of fresh and salt water), temperature changes, abundance of nutrients, lots of light.

 2. Neritic zone—between continental shelf (200 meters) and low tide line. Much sun and nutrients, abundant phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fishes.

*Includes coral reefs—colonies of coral polyps, abundant and diverse life

 3. Open sea zone—Area where ocean is deeper than 200 meters. Not very productive, not many nutrients.

* Bathyal zone

* Abyssal zone below 2000m is near freezing, has no sun, strange animals.

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Intertidal

 12. Describe how organisms have adapted to periodic exposure to the air:

Crabs & other animals prevent dehydration by burrowing. Animals with shells hide in them at low tide.

Estuaries

 13. Describe the conditions organisms must adapt to in an estuary:

Brackish water. Changes in salinity. Changes in temperature.

 14. What are the "rewards" for living in this biome?

Lots of nutrients, plants, and animals. Lots of light for photosynthesis.

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Neritic Zone

 15. Describe the physical location of this biome:

In water that is below low tide line but less than about 200 meters deep, on the continental shelf.

Q: what is significant about the 200 m layer in the sea?

 16. Describe the food chain of this biome:

Lots of nutrients from sea and estuaries, abundant phytoplankton is food for zooplankton, which is food for larger animals.

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Coral Reefs

 17. Describe the mutualistic relationship that exist in coral:

  Zooxanthellae (algae = Phototrophs) live in coral polyps (heterotrophs) and feed off coral waste products (Carbon dioxide and Nitrogenous waste). In turn, the algae release nutrients and oxygen that coral needs to survive.

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Open Sea Zone

 18.     Describe the physical location of this biome.

  In ocean water on the continental slope after the neritic zone where benthos is less than 200 meters deep.

B/w 200m-2000m: bathyal zone

Below 2000m: abyssal zone

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Abyssal Zone

  •  19. Describe animal adaptations:
  •   * Slow metabolic rates and reduced skeletal systems are adaptations to cold and pressure.
  • * Large jaws and teeth and expandable stomachs to accommodate any prey.
  • * Bioluminescence.
  • Chemosynthetic bacteria near undersea vents adapted to high temp and can live on chemicals.
  •  20. Describe chemosynthetic:
  •  Manufacture food with chemical energy rather than the sun.
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Terrestrial Biomes

Components of the Biosphere

 21. Name and describe the three components of the biosphere:

 1. lithosphere—rocks, soils, and sediments where organisms live

 2. hydrosphere—liquid and frozen water on or near the surface of the lithosphere

 3. atmosphere—region of gases, dust, and water vapor

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Climate

 22. List the four factors that produce climate:

  1. amount of solar radiation

  2. Earth’s rotation and path around the sun

  3. distribution of continents and oceans

4. elevation of land masses

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Seasonal Variations

 23. Explain why seasons occur:

  Earth’s axis tilts. (what angle?) As the year progresses, first the northern and then the southern hemisphere has more direct sunlight. The hemisphere receiving direct sunlight experiences summer.

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Regional Climates

 24. Describe the rain shadow effect (be able to diagram it on the test):

  When moist winds go over mountains they rise, cool, and drop much of their moisture as rain and snow. (why do they do that?) The area on the far side of the mountain is in a rain shadow because the air is dry and cannot produce rain.

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Latitude Versus Altitude

 26. List the terrestrial biomes as you increase in altitude or latitude start with a tropical rain forest (do not include grasslands):

  tropical rain forest, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra, ice

 27.     If you reduced the amount of rainfall in deciduous forest, what biome would it turn into? grassland

 28. If you reduced the amount of rainfall in grassland, what biome would it turn into?   semi desert

 28.     If you reduced the temperature of coniferous forest, what biome would it turn into? tundra

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Succession

 30. Define ecological succession:

  The gradual, sequential replacement of populations in an area.

 31. Describe the general characteristics of the plants of the three types of succession communities:

  1. pioneer—hardy species with well-dispersed seeds that remain viable, grow rapidly in full sun

 2. seral—rapidly growing trees; shrubs that thrive in sun, longer life cycle and more extensive root systems than pioneers

 3. climax—shade-tolerant trees whose saplings survive at higher rate than trees of seral community

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Final Things to Study

Climatograms (be able to construct one and read one)