THE JIGSAW CLASSROOM Conceived and Created by: Dr. Iftekhar Ahmed
WHAT ACTUALLY IS A JIGSAW CLASSROOM? • The Jigsaw Classroom is an active cooperative learning technique that besides reducing racial conflict among school children, • Promotes better learning, • Improves student motivation, and • Increases enjoyment of the learning experience.
THE BACKGROUND • It was created in Texas by professor Aronson. • To help ease out racial tensions in the desegregation process of a hostile Texas school. • Jigsaw was implemented widely by teachers after its initial stages proved to increase confidence in students, • Reduce absences, increase academic performance, and increase text scores in impoverished areas.
WHY JIGSAW? • It is very efficient way to learn new material. • Jigsaw encourages listening, engagement, and empathy because each group member has a crucial role to play in the assigned lesson. • Group members must work together as a team to accomplish a common goal; each person depends on all the others. No student can succeed completely unless everyone works together as a team. • Jigsaw uses “active cooperation by design” a method that facilitates interaction among all students in the class, leading them to value each other as contributors to their common task. https://www.slideshare.net
JIGSAW IN 10 EASY STEPS: • STEP ONE: Divide students into 5 or 6 person jigsaw groups. The groups should be diverse in terms of gender, ethnicity, race, and ability. • STEP TWO: Appoint one student from each group as the leader. Initially, this person should be the most mature student in the group.
…. • STEP THREE: Divide the day’s lesson into 5-6 segments. For example, if you want history students to learn about Eleanor Roosevelt, you might divide a short biography of her into stand-alone segments on: (1) her childhood, (2) her family life with Franklin and their children, (3) her life after Franklin contracted polio, (4) her work in the White House as First Lady, and (5) her life and work after Franklin’s death.
…. • STEP FOUR: Assign each student to learn one segment. Make sure students have direct access only to their own segment. • STEP FIVE: Give students time to read over their segment at least twice and become familiar with it. There is no need for them to memorize it.
…. • STEP SIX: Form temporary “expert groups” by having one student from each jigsaw group join other students assigned to the same segment. Give students in these expert groups time to discuss the main points of their segment and to rehearse the presentations they will make to their jigsaw group.
…. • STEP SEVEN: Bring the students back into their jigsaw groups. • STEP EIGHT: Ask each student to present his or her segment to the group. Encourage others in the group to ask questions for clarification.
…. • STEP NINE: Float from group to group, observing the process. If any group is having trouble (e.g., a member is dominating or disruptive), make an appropriate intervention. Eventually, it’s best for the group leader to handle this task. Leaders can be trained by whispering an instruction on how to intervene, until the leader gets the hang of it.
…. • STEP TEN: At the end of the session, give a quiz on the material. Students quickly come to realize that these sessions are not just fun and games but really count. http://www.jigsaw.org/step.htm
TRADITIONAL vs JIGSAW CLASSROOM T: Teacher is the only human resource and source of all information. J: Each student serves as a valuable information resource. T: Students compete for validation from the teacher (rewards, attention, approval). J: All students feel validated through helping others learn. Aronson and patnoe(2011)
…. T: Students view one another as competitors- there is no incentive for collaboration. J: Students must cooperate in order to achieve success. T: Minority students and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, receive fewer validations and may experience a sense of inferiority. J: All students are empowered through being keepers of knowledge, being in a position to share that knowledge with classmates. Aronson and Patnoe (2011)
LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND JIGSAW CLASSES • Software application for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting, delivery and assessment of educational courses. • It augments learning experience further through tools like Moodle, Blackboard, Google classroom, Blended learning and Flipped classes. • All technology assisted learning can help achieve inclusiveness in an effective manner.
BLENDED LEARNING AND JIGSAW CLASSES • Online digital media is combined with traditional classroom method to make learning experience rewarding. • The teacher drives instruction and augments with digital tools. • Students cycle through digital learning and in-class learning. • Most content through digital platform, teachers for face to face consultation and support.
…. • Content delivered via digital platform in consistent location along with face-to-face interaction. • Student choose to enhance traditional learning with digital activities. • Entire course through digital platform with occasional need based teacher interaction.
FLIPPED AND JIGSAW CLASSES • It is inversion of conventional classroom approach: Swapping classwork and homework. • The two types of classes can be combined across various group activities. • Content delivery through mixed digital medium like video lectures, while hands-on sessions, problem solving and peer-to-peer collaboration can happen in the classroom.