ISEC 2005 Glasgow ADHD: a growing challenge to educational inclusion Joan Stead and Gwynedd Lloyd University of Edinburgh email@example.com
This paper • The advent of ADHD: what is it? where has it come from? • Some data from Scotland • Issues for schools • Issues for thinking about inclusion
ADHD what is it? • A medical condition? • Medicalising of naughtiness? • A psychiatric disorder? • A label of forgiveness? It depends who answers the question
What is it? • ADHD is a medically diagnosed ‘condition’ • It is a term which has only recently been used • Previously the term used was hyperkinetic disorder • It comes from the diagnostic and statistical manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-iv) • The diagnosis is still controversial
ADHD does not • Have clear physical signs that can be seen in an x-ray or laboratory test. • It can only be diagnosed by looking for certain characteristics of behaviour • (NICE Guidelines England)
Why? • Educational reasons • Social reasons • Family reasons • Information reasons • Funding reasons • Marketing reasons • Professional preferences/judgements
A pilot study: Mapping the issue • Numbers of pupils identified with ADHD and those on medication in primary schools in Scotland Explore whether: • school staff involved in diagnostic process • they meet with medical staff • They feel adequately prepared for supporting pupils ‘with ADHD’ in classroom
Methods • One page easy to complete questionnaire • Only one councils completed at present • Large city council • Half of the primary schools • Random sample • Return rate - 32 of 51 schools
Early findings from pilot study • 54 children were diagnosed with ADHD • 40 children were on medication • 22 schools had provided evidence for medical diagnosis-12 had not • In 11 schools there had been meetings with medical staff, in 15 schools there had been no such meetings • 14 schools said they felt adequately prepared in supporting pupils, 14 schools did not.
? Difficulties withadministration of medication • “Not had enough time to assess this. Pupil has been excluded already.” • “Staff taken away from other duties. We have had to buy secure storage units.” • “Getting the child to swallow them”.
?Staff feel adequately prepared • “We are relatively ‘new’ at having children diagnosed with ADHD and feel we need more info on this.” • “Yes partly. Staff have researched ADHD on the internet, attended courses and read books.”
Data from 5 special schools • A primary mainly boys 18 pupils - 9 diagnosed/medicated • B primary mainly boys 52 pupils - 3 waiting diagnosis 11 diagnosed • C secondary mainly boys 60 pupils - 7 diagnosed • D secondary girls 10 pupils - 1 diagnosed • E secondary boys 50 pupils - 3 diagnosed
Further Scottish data Disability Living Allowance for claimants under 16 with Behavioural Disorder 31/8/00 3.6 (thousands) 31/8/01 4.0 31/8/02 4.8 31/8/03 5.4 31/8/04 6.0 (Source DWP, Information Directorate, 5% samples)
A growing challenge to inclusion • Medical not educational solutions • Teachers not confident that they can address this • If confident, often because of psycho-medically based training/information
Labels and inclusion • Educational inclusion depends on schools seeing pupils as whole human beings? • Expectations reduced/altered as consequence of labels? • Labels refer to individual disorder not to educational practice
Author details Dr Joan Stead and Dr Gwynedd Lloyd Moray House School of Education Holyrood Rd Edinburgh EH8 8AQ 0044 1316516221 (Joan) 00441316516445 (Gwynedd) Joan.Stead@ed.ac.uk Gwynedd.Lloyd@ed.ac.uk