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Biochemistry

Biochemistry

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Biochemistry

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  1. Carbon Compounds Biochemistry

  2. I. Role of Carbon in Organisms Organic compounds • ___________________ = compounds that contain carbon • Ex: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins • _____________________ = compounds that DO NOT contain carbon • Ex: vitamins, minerals, water Inorganic compounds

  3. I. Role of Carbon in Organisms 4 • Carbon forms ___ covalent bonds to become stable. • Can join with other carbons to form straight ________, branches or _______. • These structures may contain __________ carbon atoms. • This makes many ___________ possible chains rings multiple compounds

  4. I. Role of Carbon in Organisms Methane • _________ = the simplest carbon compound (CH4) • _____________ = any molecule made ONLY of __________ and ________ atoms! Hydrocarbon hydrogen carbon

  5. II. The Digestive System • The digestive system breaks down organic compounds into their building blocks (__________). • Body cells take the monomers and put them together in the form the body can use monomers

  6. II. The Digestive System Macromolecules • ________________ = extremely large compounds made of smaller compounds. • _________ = large molecule formed when many smaller molecules (monomers) bond together, usually in ______ chains. • Ex: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids Polymer long

  7. Monosaccharides Amino Acids 3 fatty acids & 1 glycerol Nucleotides

  8. What do athletes eat the day before a big game? • Carbohydrates: • Carb loading works because carbohydrates are used by the cells to STORE and RELEASE energy.

  9. III. Carbohydrates storage • Compounds used for _________ and release of ________ • Made of C, H, O atoms energy

  10. 3 types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharide 1. ________________ = C6H12O6 ________ sugar (6 carbons) Ex: _______, ________, _________ • Only form our ______ can use for energy Simple glucose fructose galactose body

  11. 3 types of carbohydrates: Disaccharide 2. ________________ = C12H22O11 ________ sugar made of 2 simple sugars Ex: _________ (milk sugar), _________, _________ (table sugar) Double lactose maltose sucrose

  12. 3 types of carbohydrates: Polysaccharide 3. ________________ = more than 2 _________________ Ex. ________ - plant’s energy storing molecule monosaccharides Starch

  13. 3 types of carbohydrates: Glycogen • __________ - Animal’s energy storing molecule • Energy storage in the form of _________ • Found in the liver and skeletal muscle • When the body needs ________ between meals/physical activity, glycogen is broken down into glucose through ____________ glucose energy hydrolysis

  14. 3 types of carbohydrates: Cellulose • ________ - provides structure in plant cell walls (cannot be digested by human body)

  15. What happens to CARBOHYDRATES in the body? • Broken down by the digestive system into _________________ which are then absorbed into the body through the _____________, where the body cells take the monosaccharides and produce ________. monosaccharides bloodstream energy

  16. Lipids & Proteins Biochemistry

  17. I. Lipids fats oils • Commonly called _______ and _______ • Contain ______ C-H bonds and ______ O atoms than _______________ • Ex. C57H110O6 Nonpolar; therefore repel _______ (__________) less more carbohydrates water insoluble

  18. I. Lipids Functions of lipids in your body • ____________________________: • 1. ____________ energy storage (used when carbohydrates are _____ available) • 2. __________ • 3. _________ body tissue (cushioning) Long term NOT Insulation Protect

  19. Which has more energy - lipids or carbs? • One gram of _____ contains _______ as much ________ as one gram of _______________. Therefore, _____ are better _______ compounds! TWICE fat energy carbohydrates fats storage

  20. Fats vs. Carbs & Energy Storage 4 • 1 gram of Carbs (glycogen) = about ___ Kcal of energy • A short term rapid energy source (sprint events) • 1 gram of Fats = ______________ of energy • A long term energy source (endurance events – marathons) about 9 Kcal

  21. Types and Examples of Lipids: Sterols • 1. _______ - steroids • 2. ______ - bee, furniture, ear • 3. __________ - in egg yolks • 4. _____ - from animals • 5. ____ - from plants Waxes Cholesterol Fats Oils

  22. Structure of Lipids • Basic building blocks: • _______________ + ____________ • _____________ • Long ________________ with a __________ group at one end. 3 fatty acids 1 glycerol Fatty Acids carboxyl chains of carbon

  23. Structure of Lipids • One fatty acid:

  24. 3 types of fats: Saturated fats • 1. ________________ = fatty acid chains of carbon with only ________ bonds between the carbon atoms. • “__________” – cholesterol (heart disease) • _______ at room temperature • Ex: ________ single Bad Fats Solid butter

  25. 3 types of fats: Unsaturated fats • 2. __________________ = fatty acid chains of carbon with ONE ________ bond between the carbon atoms • “___________” • ________ at room temperature • Ex: ___________ double Good Fats liquid olive oil

  26. 3 types of fats: Polyunsaturated fats • 3. ______________________ = more than one double bond between the carbon atoms in the chain. • Ex: nuts, seeds, fish, leafy greens.

  27. Structural formulas for saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids:

  28. What happens to LIPIDS in the body? • Broken down by the digestive system into ______________________ which are then absorbed into the body through the bloodstream, where the body cells take the fatty acids and glycerol and make needed lipids. fatty acids and glycerol

  29. I. Lipids Triglycerides • _______________ = majority of fat in organism consist of this type of fat molecules • Derived from fats eaten in _______ or made in the body from other energy sources like carbohydrates. foods

  30. I. Lipids • Calories ingested in a meal and not used immediately by tissues are converted to triglycerides and transported to fat cells to be stored. • Storage – 3 month supply of ________ vs. glycogen’s 24 hour supply. energy

  31. I. Lipids • Hormones regulate the release of triglycerides from fat tissue so they meet the body’s needs for energy between meals.

  32. Excess Triglycerides – Life Applications: Arteriosclerosis • Cause plaque to build up __________________ = walls of the arteries get thick and hard; fat builds up inside the walls and slows blood flow • blood clots • heart attacks • strokes

  33. Excess Triglycerides – Life Applications: Hypertension • ____________ high blood pressure

  34. II. Proteins • Large complex polymer composed of C, H, O, N and sometimes S • Monomers (basic building blocks): _____________ • ___ different amino acids amino acids 20

  35. Functions of proteins in our body: Muscle • 1. _______ contraction • 2. Transport _______ in the bloodstream oxygen

  36. Functions of proteins in our body: • 4. Carry out __________ reactions • 3. Provide _________ (antibodies) immunity chemical

  37. What happens to PROTEINS in the body? • Broken down by the digestive system into ___________ which are then absorbed into the body through the bloodstream, where the body cells take the amino acids and makes proteins for muscles. amino acids

  38. Enzymes & Nucleic Acids Biochemistry

  39. I. Enzymes: protein • A specialized type of _________ • ________________________: acts likes a __________ = substance that ________ up the rate of a chemical reaction but it is ____ used up in the reaction. Function in your body catalyst speeds NOT

  40. I. Enzymes: activation • Enzyme(s) reduce ____________ ________ = amount of energy needed to begin a reaction. • __________ = an organic molecule ____________ with the enzyme to ______ in the reaction energy Coenzyme associated help

  41. I. Enzymes: • Need an active site on the enzyme • _____________ - attracts and holds only ________ molecules called ___________. • “Lock-and-key” system Active site specific substrates

  42. I. Enzymes: enzymes • Therefore, _________ enable molecules called ____________ to undergo a chemical change to form new substances, called __________. substrates products

  43. I. Enzymes:

  44. Example of the hydrolysis ofsucrose using the enzyme (sucrase)

  45. I. Enzymes: Competitive Inhibitors • ________________________ = a substance that _________ the activity of an enzyme by entering the _______ ______ in place of the ___________ whose structure it ________. reduces active substrate site mimics

  46. I. Enzymes: survive • Could not _________ without enzymes! (almost all chemical reactions in cells require an enzyme) • ____________________________: • 1. ___________ of food • 2. ___________ of molecules • 3. ____________________ of energy Speed up the reactions in Digestion Synthesis Storage and release

  47. I. Enzymes: Enzymes • _________ are named for the compound they work on. • You drop the current compound ending and replace it with ______. -ase

  48. I. Enzymes: • For example: • Lactose’s enzyme is _________ • Maltose’s enzyme is _________ • Sucrose’s enzyme is _________ • _________ (in your saliva) is the enzyme for starch lactase maltase sucrase Amylase