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Chapter 12: Writing…. NOTES: About exercising : it keeps you healthy: physically & mentally… I’ve tried to match the slides to the order of the textbook this time… . Generalities. < 6,000 years old Human invention Learned skill Impacts our thinking How many vowels in English?

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chapter 12 writing

Chapter 12: Writing…

NOTES:

About exercising: it keeps you healthy: physically & mentally…

I’ve tried to match the slides to the order of the textbook this time…

generalities
Generalities
  • < 6,000 years old
  • Human invention
  • Learned skill
  • Impacts our thinking
    • How many vowels in English?
    • Word pronunciation
history of writing
History of Writing
  • Apparently for Business Transactions…
  • Multiple Independent Developments
    • Middle East – Sumerians
      • ~ 3,500 BC
      • Egypt (totally independent??)
        • ~ 3,000 BC
    • China
      • ~ 2,000 BC
rosetta stone
196 BC

Hieroglyphics(prestige - religious)

Demotic(popular - daily script)

Greek(Conquered people)

So What??

Rosetta Stone…

http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/aes/t/the_rosetta_stone.aspx

writing defined

Writing: Defined

A system of visual symbols representing audible symbols

u tell me
U Tell Me
  • What are some creative txt examples?
  • What are some emoticons?
whaddya think
Whaddya Think?
  • Does TXT qualify as:
    • writing
    • a new language
    • just shorthand of normal English
    • something else… << If so, what? >>
  • What about emoticons?
writing systems
Writing Systems
  • Syllabic
  • Logographic (ideographs)
  • Alphabetic
syllabic
Syllabic
  • Symbol represents a syllable
    • 4GET IT
    • But NOT: GR8
  • Gradual development from pictures to symbols
japanese
Japanese

The Japanese also use our alphabet…

logographic
Logographic
  • AKA
    • Ideographic
    • Pictographic
  • Symbols represent words – Not syllables
    • Symbols based on:
      • Meaning &/or Sound
    • Ideal system
      • each word: unique symbol
    • Chinese system
      • each word: symbol or combination of symbols
      • 5,000 characters to read a newspaper
      • 30,000 characters to read classical literature
slide15
From Pictures of Real Items
    • Sun
    • Moon
    • Bird
  • Extensions of Meaning
alphabetic
Alphabetic
  • Set of graphic symbols which represent distinctive sounds
    • English
    • IPA
    • Greek = 1st …?
  • Ideally – 1 to 1 relationship with sound
    • English (& French) are way off…
    • Spanish & Korean come close
english orthography
English Orthography
  • 26 letters:
    • 20½ consonants
    • 5½ vowels
  • Actual Usage
    • ≈ 24 consonants
    • ≈ 13 vowels
    • ≈ 5 diphthongs
you try it

You Try It

Find examples of words where the root change pronunciation and

A. does not change the spelling

B. does change the spelling

what do you think
What Do You Think?
  • What are the two most important human inventions of all time?
    • Compare their importance to writing
advantages disadvantages of
Advantages & Disadvantages of:
  • Logographic, syllabic, alphabetic systems
    • Learning ease
    • Ease in writing
    • Ease of reading
    • Problems for printing
    • Adaptability for current & future technology
    • Represent borrowed words (names, etc)
    • What sociological & historical factors interact with the items above – be as specific as possible
on orthography
On Orthography
  • How important is a language’s orthography?
  • Why do you suppose Sequoya chose to invent a totally new orthography?
  • What’s your prediction for the future of our globe’s languages?
    • Solidarity? - What system? Why? To what result?
    • Diversion? - Support your point? To what result?
recommended exercises
Recommended Exercises
  • Just for Fun:
    • http://www.omniglot.com/index.htm

(Writing & languages of the world)

  • Textbook Exercises
    • (1, 2 – previous slides) & 5