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Symphony Environmental. July 2008. As explained in the previous presentation there are different types of polymers. We want to apply d2w to the simplest and most abundant types :- Polyethylene and Polypropylene. 66 million tonnes of polyethylene per annum

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Symphony environmental

As explained in the previous presentation there are different types of polymers.

We want to apply d2w to the simplest and most abundant types :-

Polyethylene and Polypropylene.

66 million tonnes of polyethylene per annum

60 million tonnes of polyprpylene per annum

35% used in packaging.

That’s just 44 million tonnes to go for!

Polymer Structure


Symphony environmental

Flexible packaging:- different types of polymers.

Commodity plastic packaging -bags and sacks- EASY

Non food packaging - NOT SO EASY

Food packaging - EVEN LESS EASY

But the rewards are higher:-

Repeat business

Based on specification

Print content


Symphony environmental

Lightweight different types of polymers.

Flexible

Strong/Durable

Heat sealable

Impervious to moisture

Printable

Recyclable

By-product of Oil Refinery

The Benefits of Plastic Packaging


Crude components
Crude components different types of polymers.

LPG 2%

Naptha 3%

Lubricants 5%

Aviation Fuel 15%

Petrol 45%

Diesel 15%

Heating Oils10%

Bitumen 5%


Crude oil

Naptha is a by-product of crude oil extraction. different types of polymers.

We produce about 87 million barrels per day

It is about 3% of all global crude extraction.

50% is used to produce plastic products.

Crude Oil


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But… different types of polymers.

Not degradable


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The Plastic Problem different types of polymers.

  • Consumers and Environmental Activists Drive Politics

  • Consumers want their waste picked up from them, but not put down anywhere near them.

  • Consumers believe that household waste is predominantly plastic packaging

  • Plastic packaging is considered to be a mayor environmental pollution problem.


Symphony environmental

Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic different types of polymers.

Solution

  • Complete degradation 2 – 5 years after the end of the pre-set service life*

  • * Depends on product type and exposure conditions


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How does it work? different types of polymers.

d2w additive put into basic polymer resin at the production stage (Normally 1%)

Breaks molecular chain

Plastic starts degrading at end of pre-set service life

Process of Oxidation – caused by light, heat and stress

Bio-degradation completed by micro-organisms


Symphony environmental

H different types of polymers.

H

H

H

H

H

Short chains / brittle

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

oxidation

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

microbial

degradation

oxidation

H

H

H

H

H

H

degradation is affected

by heat, light, stress and air

CO2 + H2O + biomass

How does it work?

Long chains Flexible material


Symphony environmental

Water different types of polymers.

Residues

  • CO2

  • Biomass

  • NO ‘‘HEAVY METALS’’


How it works
How it works different types of polymers.


How it works1

It is well accepted that polyolefins that have undergone oxidative degradation provide hydrophilic surfaces having greatly reduced molecular masses.

Reduction of the molecular weight of the polyolefin to around 40,000 combined with the introduction of oxygen containing functional groups leads to bio-degradation.

These images are taken from a pieces of fragmented oxo-degraded d2w film. They were subjected to immersion in water and a compost mixture.

They were then examined in a Leo variable pressure scanning electron microscope.

In an area of extensive cracking colonies of bacteria have arrived.

A closer look at the area highlighted in blue shows…..

How it works


How it works2
How it Works oxidative degradation provide hydrophilic surfaces having greatly reduced molecular masses.


How it works3

Numerous bacterial cells and fungal spores colonising the cracked area and the whole depth of the film through the crack is showing areas of microbial attack.

How it works


How it works4

The transition metal salt generates free radicals that in turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.

It is these that are bio degradable.

How it works


How it works5

Transition metals:- turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.

Cobalt, iron, manganese, copper,zinc, cerium, nickel.

How it works


Symphony environmental

Food contact Test turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.


Symphony environmental

Food contact test turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.


Recycling of degradable plastics
Recycling of Degradable Plastics turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.

The Recycling of oxo- degradable materials is not a problem.


Symphony environmental

EU funded BRITE-EURAM research project Aston University in collaboration with Blaise Pascal University

“no change in melt flow index was observed on reprocessing”

Process aid stabilisation is finite and exhausted during manufacturing. Transition metal salt is susceptible to shear temperatures.

Recycling introduces at least two more heat histories.

Recycling of Degradable Plastics


Symphony environmental

It is important to distinguish between the different types of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different

Oxo-biodegradable plastic is made from a by-product of oil refining

Hydro-biodegradable plastic is usually made from a food crop such as starch, derived from agricultural crops

Bio-degradable plastic


Symphony environmental

These are very much more expensive and less durable. of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different

Some of these plastics have a high starch content and it is claimed that they are therefore made from renewable resources. However many of them contain more than 50% of synthetic plastic derived from oil, and others are entirely based on oil derived intermediates.

“Based on”? Process aids?

In the depths of a landfill, these plastics can generate copious amounts of methane

A disproportionate amount of land will be required to produce the raw material to replace conventional plastic and also a huge amount of water.

Already the use of crops to make bio fuels is driving up the cost of feed to chicken farmers, pig farmers and other livestock industries.

Hydro-biodegradable plastics will emit methane and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at a greater rate than oxo-biodegradable plastics.

Why not Hydro-biodegradable

plastic?


Hydro degradables

Mater-Bi from Novamont of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different

Eco-Flex from BASF

Bionelle from Showa Denko

Biomax from Dupont

PVOH- various sources

PCL / Capa from Solvay

Nature-Works from Cargill PLA

Nature-Flex from Innovia

Hydro degradables


Disposal

Typically there are Five Options:- of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different

Incineration

Landfill

Compost

Recycle

Litter

Disposal


Disposal1

Incineration;- refined oil of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different

Landfill;- breakdown -aid settlement

Compost;- will work in in-vessel

Recycle;- will recycle

Litter;- will disappear

Disposal


Symphony environmental

Oxo-biodegradable film is certified safe for contact with any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.

Oxo-biodegradable plastics are made from naptha which is a by-product of oil refining.

It makes good environmental sense to use the by-product instead of wasting it by ‘flare-off’ at the refinery

Oxo-biodegradable plastics can be recycled and can be made from recycled. They can also be composted, and perform well in-vessel.

Oxo-biodegradable sheet is very useful in agriculture because after the harvest many thousands of kilometres of dirty plastic has to be gathered and disposed of.

Advantages of Oxo-biodegradable

plastic


Symphony environmental

No special machinery or workforce any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.

No change of supplier or loss of jobs.

Compatible with polypropylene PP, polyethylene PE & most consumable plastic packaging.

6 months to 5 years shelf life. Adjustable product life.

No compromises in functionality:

strength, clarity, barrier properties, seal ability, print.

Comprehensively tested and and proven

Manufacturing Oxo-biodegradable

plastic


Symphony environmental

Standards for Oxo-biodegradable any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.

  • New draft Standard BS 8472 (not complete)

  • ASTM (US) D.6954 testing protocol

  • AFNOR NFU 52-001:2005 (France) – Agriculture/Horticulture


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Certification any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.

  • Food Contact Safe – tested by RAPRA (US Owned)

  • Soil Safe – tested by OWS, Belgium (EN 13432)

  • Biodegradable – tested by PYXIS, UK

  • Oxo-biodegradable – tested by CSI, Italy; RAPRA, UK and UFSCar / UNESP Brasil


Symphony environmental

Products Available any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.

PE, PP, (Not PET)

Carrier bags or ‘‘Shopper-bags’’

Refuse sacks

Aprons

Bags to contain dog faeces collected in parks, gardens, etc

Bin Liners

Gloves

Bread bags

Frozen food bags

Wrappers for cigarette packets

Shrink-wrap and pallet-wrap

‘‘Bubble-wrap’’

Rigid products such as bottles and cups


Symphony environmental

Products Available any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.

PE, PP, (Not PET, PS or PVC)


Symphony environmental

Main Product Features any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.

Reduce and Re-use

Recycle

Make from recycled

Incinerate

Compost (in vessel)

Landfill (no methane)


Symphony environmental

www.degradable.net any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.

  • Oxo-biodegradable products and additive technologies