Symphony Environmental. July 2008. As explained in the previous presentation there are different types of polymers. We want to apply d2w to the simplest and most abundant types :- Polyethylene and Polypropylene. 66 million tonnes of polyethylene per annum
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As explained in the previous presentation there are different types of polymers.
We want to apply d2w to the simplest and most abundant types :-
Polyethylene and Polypropylene.
66 million tonnes of polyethylene per annum
60 million tonnes of polyprpylene per annum
35% used in packaging.
That’s just 44 million tonnes to go for!
Flexible packaging:- different types of polymers.
Commodity plastic packaging -bags and sacks- EASY
Non food packaging - NOT SO EASY
Food packaging - EVEN LESS EASY
But the rewards are higher:-
Based on specification
Lightweight different types of polymers.
Impervious to moisture
By-product of Oil Refinery
The Benefits of Plastic Packaging
Aviation Fuel 15%
Naptha is a by-product of crude oil extraction. different types of polymers.
We produce about 87 million barrels per day
It is about 3% of all global crude extraction.
50% is used to produce plastic products.Crude Oil
But… different types of polymers.
The Plastic Problem different types of polymers.
Oxo-Biodegradable Plastic different types of polymers.
How does it work? different types of polymers.
d2w additive put into basic polymer resin at the production stage (Normally 1%)
Breaks molecular chain
Plastic starts degrading at end of pre-set service life
Process of Oxidation – caused by light, heat and stress
Bio-degradation completed by micro-organisms
H different types of polymers.
Short chains / brittle
degradation is affected
by heat, light, stress and air
CO2 + H2O + biomass
How does it work?
Long chains Flexible material
Water different types of polymers.
It is well accepted that polyolefins that have undergone oxidative degradation provide hydrophilic surfaces having greatly reduced molecular masses.
Reduction of the molecular weight of the polyolefin to around 40,000 combined with the introduction of oxygen containing functional groups leads to bio-degradation.
These images are taken from a pieces of fragmented oxo-degraded d2w film. They were subjected to immersion in water and a compost mixture.
They were then examined in a Leo variable pressure scanning electron microscope.
In an area of extensive cracking colonies of bacteria have arrived.
A closer look at the area highlighted in blue shows…..How it works
Numerous bacterial cells and fungal spores colonising the cracked area and the whole depth of the film through the crack is showing areas of microbial attack.How it works
The transition metal salt generates free radicals that in turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.
It is these that are bio degradable.How it works
Transition metals:- turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.
Cobalt, iron, manganese, copper,zinc, cerium, nickel.How it works
Food contact Test turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.
Food contact test turn produce hydro-peroxides in the form of aldehydes, ketones, esters, alcohols and carboxylic acids.
The Recycling of oxo- degradable materials is not a problem.
EU funded BRITE-EURAM research project Aston University in collaboration with Blaise Pascal University
“no change in melt flow index was observed on reprocessing”
Process aid stabilisation is finite and exhausted during manufacturing. Transition metal salt is susceptible to shear temperatures.
Recycling introduces at least two more heat histories.
Recycling of Degradable Plastics
It is important to distinguish between the different types of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different
Oxo-biodegradable plastic is made from a by-product of oil refining
Hydro-biodegradable plastic is usually made from a food crop such as starch, derived from agricultural crops
These are very much more expensive and less durable. of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different
Some of these plastics have a high starch content and it is claimed that they are therefore made from renewable resources. However many of them contain more than 50% of synthetic plastic derived from oil, and others are entirely based on oil derived intermediates.
“Based on”? Process aids?
In the depths of a landfill, these plastics can generate copious amounts of methane
A disproportionate amount of land will be required to produce the raw material to replace conventional plastic and also a huge amount of water.
Already the use of crops to make bio fuels is driving up the cost of feed to chicken farmers, pig farmers and other livestock industries.
Hydro-biodegradable plastics will emit methane and release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at a greater rate than oxo-biodegradable plastics.
Why not Hydro-biodegradable
Mater-Bi from Novamont of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different
Eco-Flex from BASF
Bionelle from Showa Denko
Biomax from Dupont
PVOH- various sources
PCL / Capa from Solvay
Nature-Works from Cargill PLA
Nature-Flex from InnoviaHydro degradables
Typically there are Five Options:- of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different
Incineration;- refined oil of biodegradable plastic as their costs and uses are very different
Landfill;- breakdown -aid settlement
Compost;- will work in in-vessel
Recycle;- will recycle
Litter;- will disappearDisposal
Oxo-biodegradable film is certified safe for contact with any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.
Oxo-biodegradable plastics are made from naptha which is a by-product of oil refining.
It makes good environmental sense to use the by-product instead of wasting it by ‘flare-off’ at the refinery
Oxo-biodegradable plastics can be recycled and can be made from recycled. They can also be composted, and perform well in-vessel.
Oxo-biodegradable sheet is very useful in agriculture because after the harvest many thousands of kilometres of dirty plastic has to be gathered and disposed of.
Advantages of Oxo-biodegradable
No special machinery or workforce any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.
No change of supplier or loss of jobs.
Compatible with polypropylene PP, polyethylene PE & most consumable plastic packaging.
6 months to 5 years shelf life. Adjustable product life.
No compromises in functionality:
strength, clarity, barrier properties, seal ability, print.
Comprehensively tested and and proven
Standards for Oxo-biodegradable any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.
Certification any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.
Products Available any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.
PE, PP, (Not PET)
Carrier bags or ‘‘Shopper-bags’’
Bags to contain dog faeces collected in parks, gardens, etc
Frozen food bags
Wrappers for cigarette packets
Shrink-wrap and pallet-wrap
Rigid products such as bottles and cups
Products Available any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.
PE, PP, (Not PET, PS or PVC)
Main Product Features any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.
Reduce and Re-use
Make from recycled
Compost (in vessel)
Landfill (no methane)
www.degradable.net any food type and is ideal for frozen food packaging.