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Compounds. Binary Compounds. Binary compounds that contain a metal of fixed oxidation number (group 1, group 2, Al, Zn, Ag, etc.), and a non-metal. To name these compounds, give the name of metal followed by the name of the non-metal, with the ending replaced by the suffix – ide. Examples:.

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slide2

Binary Compounds

Binary compounds that contain a metal of fixed oxidation number

(group 1, group 2, Al, Zn, Ag, etc.), and a non-metal.

To name these compounds, give the name of metal followed by the

name of the non-metal, with the ending replaced by the suffix –ide.

Examples:

NaCl sodium chloride (Na1+ Cl1-)

CaS calcium sulfide (Ca2+ S2-)

AlI3 aluminum iodide (Al3+ I1-)

slide3

Cations and Anions

Common Simple Cations and Anions

Cation Name Anion Name*

H 1+ hydrogen H 1-hydride

Li 1+ lithium F 1-fluoride

Na 1+ sodium Cl 1-chloride

K 1+ potassium Br 1-bromide

Cs 1+ cesium I 1-iodide

Be 2+ beryllium O 2-oxide

Mg 2+ magnesium S 2-sulfide

Al 3+ aluminum

Ag 1+ silver

*The root is given in color.

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 86

example aluminum chloride

Step 4: AlCl

3

Example: Aluminum Chloride

Criss-Cross Rule

Step 1:

write out name with space

Al Cl

3+

1-

Step 2:

write symbols & charge of elements

Al Cl

Step 3:

1

3

criss-cross charges as subsrcipts

combine as formula unit

(“1” is never shown)

example aluminum chloride1
Example: Aluminum Chloride

Criss-Cross Rule

Step 1: Aluminum Chloride

Step 2: Al3+ Cl1-

Step 3: Al Cl

1

3

Step 4: AlCl

3

example aluminum oxide
Example: Aluminum Oxide

Criss-Cross Rule

Step 1: Aluminum Oxide

Step 2: Al3+ O2-

Step 3: Al O

2

3

Step 4: Al2O3

example magnesium oxide
Example: Magnesium Oxide

Criss-Cross Rule

Step 1: Magnesium Oxide

Step 2: Mg2+ O2-

Step 3: Mg O

2

2

Step 4: Mg2O2

Step 5: MgO

naming binary compounds
Naming Binary Compounds

Formula Name

barium oxide

  • BaO ____________________
  • ________________ sodium bromide
  • MgI2 ____________________
  • KCl ____________________
  • ________________ strontium fluoride
  • ________________ cesium fluoride

NaBr

magnesium iodide

potassium chloride

SrF2

CsF

ternary compounds1
Ternary Compounds

Ternary compounds are those containing three different elements.

(NaNO3, NH4Cl, etc.). The naming of ternary compounds involves the

memorization of several positive and negative polyatomic ions, (two or

more atoms per ion), and adding these names to the element with which

they combine.

i.e., Sodium ion, Na1+ added to the nitrate ion, NO31-, to give the compound, NaNO3, sodium nitrate.

Binary rules for indicating the oxidation number of metals and for indicating

the numbers of atoms present are followed. The polyatomic ions that should

be learned are listed in a separate handout.

ternary compounds2
Ternary Compounds

NaNO2 sodium nitrite

KClO3 potassium chlorate

Ca3(PO4)2 calcium phosphate

Fe(OH)3 iron (III) hydroxide

NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate

‘sodium hydrogen carbonate’

common polyatomic ions
Common Polyatomic Ions

Names of Common Polyatomic Ions

Ion Name Ion Name

NH41+ ammonium CO3 2- carbonate

NO21- nitrite HCO31- hydrogen carbonate

NO31- nitrate (“bicarbonate” is a widely

SO32- sulfite used common name)

SO42- sulfate ClO 1- hypochlorite

HSO41- hydrogen sulfate ClO21- chlorite

(“bisulfate” is a widely ClO31- chlorate

used common name) ClO41- perchlorate

OH 1- hydroxide C2H3O22- acetate

CN 1- cyanide MnO41- permanganate

PO43- phosphate Cr2O72- dichromate

HPO42- hydrogen phosphate CrO42- chromate

H2PO41- dihydrogen phosphate O22- peroxide

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 100

ternary compounds3
Ternary Compounds

Ca3(PO4) 2

  • ________________ calcium phosphate
  • ________________ ammonium carbonate
  • ________________ aluminum sulfate
  • Na2SO4 ____________________
  • LiCN ____________________
  • Ba(ClO3)2 ____________________
  • ________________ copper (II) hydroxide

(NH4)2CO3

Al2(SO4)3

sodium sulfate

lithium cyanide

barium chlorate

Cu(OH)2

magnesium phosphate
Magnesium Phosphate

Step 1: Magnesium Phosphate

Step 2: Mg2+ PO43-

Step 3: Mg (PO4)

3

2

Step 4: Mg3(PO4)2

polyatomic ions memorize

NH41+ ……………

OH1- ……………

CN1- …………..

ammonium

hydroxide

cyanide

Polyatomic Ions - Memorize

Eight “-ATE’s”

PO43- ……………

SO42- ……………

CO32- …………..

ClO31- …………..

NO31- ………..….

phosphate

sulfate

carbonate

chlorate

nitrate

phosphATE

sulfATE

carbonATE

chlorATE

nitrATE

Exceptions:

slide17

Polyatomic Ion:

a group of atoms that stay together and have a single, overall charge.

slide18

Polyatomic Ion:

a group of atoms that stay together and have a single, overall charge.

slide19

Write the compound formed by the following ions:

  • 1) Al3+ S2-
  • 2) Mg2+ PO43-
  • When a formula is given…write the proper name.
  • When a name is given…write the proper formula.
  • 3) BaO
  • 4) lithium bromide
  • 5) Ni2S3
      • 6) triphosphorous heptaoxide
  • 7) N2O5
  • 8) molybdenum (VI) nitride
  • 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT)… CH3C6H2(NO2)3
  • 10) phosphoric acid H3PO4

Write the total number of atoms that make up each compound.

Extra credit: What is the formula for plumbic iodide?(Hint: lead is Pb2+ or Pb4+)

slide20

POP

QUIZ

  • Write the compound formed by the following ions:
  • 1) Al3+ S2-
  • 2) Mg2+ PO43-
  • When a formula is given…write the proper name.
  • When a name is given…write the proper formula.
  • 3) BaO
  • 4) lithium bromide
  • 5) Ni2S3
      • 6) triphosphorous heptaoxide
  • 7) N2O5
  • 8) molybdenum (VI) nitride
  • 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT)… CH3C6H2(NO2)3
  • 10) phosphoric acid H3PO4

Write the total number of atoms that make up each compound.

Extra credit: What is the formula for plumbic iodide?(Hint: lead is Pb2+ or Pb4+)

slide21

Answer Key

  • Write the compound formed by the following ions:
  • 1) Al3+ S2-
  • 2) Mg2+ PO43-
  • When a formula is given…write the proper name.
  • When a name is given…write the proper formula.
  • 3) BaO
  • 4) lithium bromide
  • 5) Ni2S3
      • 6) triphosphorous heptaoxide
  • 7) N2O5
  • 8) molybdenum (VI) nitride
  • 9) trinitrotoluene (TNT)… CH3C6H2(NO2)3
  • 10) phosphoric acid H3PO4

Al2S3

Mg3(PO4)2

barium oxide

LiBr

nickel (III) sulfide

P3O7

dinitrogenpentaoxide

MoN2

Write the total number of atoms that make up each compound.

21

8

Extra credit: What is the formula for plumbic iodide?(Hint: lead is Pb2+ or Pb4+)

PbI4

polyatomic ions quiz
Polyatomic Ions - Quiz

C2O42- ……………

CrO42- ……………

Cr2O72- …………..

MnO41- …………..

CH3COO1- …….

oxalate

chromate

dichromate

permanganate

acetate

exceptions
Exceptions!

Two exceptions to the simple –ide ending are the diatomic oxide ions,

O22- and O21-.

O22- is called peroxide

O21- is called superoxide.

Note the differences.

BaO

BaO2

barium oxide __________

barium peroxide __________

Ba2+

Na2O

Na2O2

sodium oxide __________

sodium peroxide __________

Na1+

Do Not Reduceto lowest terms!

K2O

KO2

potassium oxide __________

potassium superoxide __________

K1+

ionic compounds polyatomic ions
Ionic Compounds:Polyatomic Ions

Ionic Compounds:  Polyatomic Ions

Ionic Compounds:  Polyatomic Ions

Polyatomic Ions Grid to Memorize

Chart of the Ions and Polyatomic Ions

Keys

ionic binary compounds multiple charge cations
Ionic Binary Compounds:Multiple-Charge Cations

Ionic Binary Compounds:  Multiple-Charge Cations

Ionic Binary Compounds:  Multiple-Charge Cations

Keys

naming chemical compounds
Naming Chemical Compounds

Binary Compound?

No

Yes

Polyatomic ions

present?

Use the strategy

summarized

earlier

No

Yes

This is a compound

for which naming

procedures have not yet

been considered.

Name the compound

using procedures similar

to those for naming

binary ionic compounds.

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 102

oxidation numbers and ionic compounds
Oxidation Numbers and Ionic Compounds

Oxidation Numbers and Ionic Compounds

Oxidation Numbers and Ionic Compounds

Keys

names and formulas of compounds
Names and Formulas of Compounds

Names and Formulas of Compounds

Names and Formulas of Compounds

Keys

electronegativities

H

2.1

Li

1.0

Be

1.5

B

2.0

C

2.5

N

3.0

O

3.5

F

4.0

Na

0.9

Mg

1.2

Al

1.5

Si

1.8

P

2.1

S

2.5

Cl

3.0

K

0.8

Ca

1.0

Sc

1.3

Ti

1.5

V

1.6

Cr

1.6

Mn

1.5

Fe

1.8

Co

1.8

Ni

1.8

Cu

1.9

Zn

1.7

Ga

1.6

Ge

1.8

As

2.0

Se

2.4

Br

2.8

Rb

0.8

Sr

1.0

Y

1.2

Zr

1.4

Nb

1.6

Mo

1.8

Tc

1.9

Ru

2.2

Rh

2.2

Pd

2.2

Ag

1.9

Cd

1.7

In

1.7

Sn

1.8

Sb

1.9

Te

2.1

I

2.5

*

Cs

0.7

Ba

0.9

La

1.1

Hf

1.3

Ta

1.5

W

1.7

Re

1.9

Os

2.2

Ir

2.2

Pt

2.2

Au

2.4

Hg

1.9

Tl

1.8

Pb

1.8

Bi

1.9

Po

2.0

At

2.2

y

Fr

0.7

Ra

0.9

Ac

1.1

*

Lanthanides: 1.1 - 1.3

y

Actinides: 1.3 - 1.5

Below 1.0

2.0 - 2.4

1.0 - 1.4

2.5 - 2.9

1.5 - 1.9

3.0 - 4.0

Electronegativities

1A

8A

1

1

3A

5A

7A

2A

4A

6A

2

2

3

3

2B

4B

6B

8B

1B

3B

5B

7B

Period

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

Hill, Petrucci, General Chemistry An Integrated Approach 2nd Edition, page 373

interpretation of a chemical formula

O

O

S

O

O

H

H

Interpretation of a Chemical Formula

Sulfuric Acid

H2SO4

Two atoms

of hydrogen

One atom

of sulfur

Four atoms

of oxygen

chemical formulas
Chemical Formulas

C8H18

Subscript indicates that

there are 8 carbon atoms

in a molecule of octane.

Subscript indicates that

there are 18 hydrogen atoms

In a molecule of octane.

Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 203

stock system of nomenclature
Stock System of Nomenclature

CuCl2

Name of Roman

cation numeral

indicating

charge

Name of anion

+

copper (II)

chloride

chemical formulas1
Chemical Formulas

Al2(SO4)3

Subscript 2

refers to

2 aluminum

atoms.

Subscript 4

refers to

4 oxygen

atoms in

sulfate ion.

Subscript 3 refers to

everything inside parentheses.

Here there are 3 sulfate ions,

with a total of 3 sulfur atoms

and 12 oxygen atoms.

Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 204

naming binary ionic compounds
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

Al2O3

Name of cation Name of anion

aluminum oxide

Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 207

the stock system of nomenclature
The Stock System of Nomenclature

CuCl2

Name of Name of anion

cation

Roman

numeral

indicating

charge

+

Copper (II) chloride

Davis, Metcalfe, Williams, Castka, Modern Chemistry, 1999, page 208

slide39

Br1-

Br1-

Br

Br

K

e-

e-

Br1-

Br1-

bromine atom

potassium atom

e-

O2-

potassium ion

bromide ion

Mg2+

K1+

K1+

K1+

K1+

K

bromine atom

potassium atom

bromide ion

potassium ion

potassium bromide

KBr

magnesium bromide

potassium oxide

MgBr2

K2O

slide40

Br1-

Br1-

Br1-

PO43-

O2-

N3-

Al3+

Ca2+

Pb4+

Mg2+

S2-

K1+

K1+

K1+

OH1-

OH1-

NH41+

NO31-

?

Cu2+

chemical bonding activity

OH1-

OH1-

Na1+

OH1-

N3-

N3-

N3-

N3-

Pb4+

Pb4+

Pb4+

(metal)

N2-

N3-

N3-

Al3+

(metal)

(metal)

Ca2+

Pb4+

M2+

Mg2+

?

M1+

M1+

Chemical Bonding Activity

(metal)

(nonmetal)

Pb4+ N3-

Pb3N4

lead (IV) nitride

or

plumbic nitride

chemical bonding activity1
Chemical Bonding Activity

Chemical Bonding Activity (pink/blue)

Chemical Bonding Activity Pieces

Chemical Bonding Activity (pink/blue)

Chemical Bonding Activity Pieces

Keys

slide43

Br1-

Br1-

Br1-

N3-

N3-

N3-

N3-

Pb4+

Pb4+

Pb4+

O2-

N3-

Al3+

Mg2+

K1+

K1+

K1+

NH41+

NO31-

Key

http://www.unit5.org/christjs/4bondingact.doc

4.

5.

1.

KBr

2.

AlN

6.

OH1-

Cu2+

K2O

OH1-

3.

Cu(OH)2

7.

Pb3N4

MgBr2

NH4NO3

slide44

Ca2+

Ca2+

Ca2+

PO43-

PO43-

PO43-

O2-

O2-

O2-

O2-

Al3+

Al3+

Fe2+

NH41+

NH41+

NH41+

Key

8.

9.

10.

(NH4)3PO4

11.

Ca3(PO4)2

Al2O3

FeO

slide45

13.

Fe3+

Fe3+

S2-

S2-

S2-

S2-

O2-

O2-

O2-

O2-

O2-

S2-

Pb4+

Pb4+

Cu2+

Pb2+

Cu1+

Cu1+

Key

14.

12.

PbS

15.

CuO

16.

Fe2O3

Cu2O

Pb2S4

PbS2

Pb2S3

molecular models activity
Molecular Models Activity

Molecular Model's Activity

Molecular Model's Activity

Keys

molecular models activity1

Molecular Models Activity

carbon tetrachloride

methane

water

ethane

ethyne

dihydrogen monosulfide

carbon dioxide

ammonia

hydrogen monochloride

trichloromethane

urea

propane

butane

nitrogen triiodide (video)

supplies

bonding and shape of molecules

B

:

N

:

:

O

Bonding and Shape of Molecules

Number

of Bonds

Number of

Unshared Pairs

Covalent

Structure

Shape

Examples

-Be-

0

0

0

1

2

2

3

4

3

2

Linear

Trigonal planar

Tetrahedral

Pyramidal

Bent

BeCl2

BF3

CH4, SiCl4

NH3, PCl3

H2O, H2S, SCl2

C

carbon tetrachloride

Cl

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

C

Cl

Cl

Cl

109.5o

Cl

Carbon tetrachloride

Tetrahedral geometry

CCl4

Carbon tetrachloride – “carbon tet” had been used as dry cleaning solvent

because of its extreme non-polarity.

methane

H

H

C

H

H

C

H

H

H

109.5o

H

Methane

Tetrahedral geometry

Methane –The first member of the paraffin (alkane) hydrocarbons series.

a.k.a. (marsh gas, CH4).

water

..

..

O

H

H

Water

d(-)

SO2

Bent

geometry

d(+)

Polar molecule

ethane

H

H

C

C

H

H

H

H

Ethane

C = 1s22s22p2

ball-and-stick

Lewis dot notation

C2H4

molecular formula

space-filling molecule

ethane1

H

H

C

C

H

H

H

H

Ethane

ball-and-stick

Lewis dot notation

C2H4

molecular formula

space-filling molecule

ethyne

6 electrons = triple bond

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

H

Ethyne

No octet

each C “feels” 6 electrons

Stable octet

C2H2

C

C

each C “feels” 7 carbons

Ethyne – a.k.a. “acetylene”

carbon dioxide

C

C

O

O

O

O

Carbon dioxide

O

C

O

Linear

geometry

CO2

ammonia

..

..

N

H

H

H

N

H

H

107o

H

N

H

H

H

Ammonia

N

H

H

NH3

H

Trigonal

Pyramidal

geometry

hydrogen monochloride

H

Cl

H

H

Cl

Cl

hydrogen

chloride

hydrochloric

acid

water

Hydrogen monochloride

HCl

d(-)

d(+)

HCl(g) + H2O(l)  HCl(aq)

Polar molecule

trichloromethane

H

H

H

Cl

Cl

C

C

Cl

Cl

C

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

109.5o

Cl

Trichloromethane

d(+)

CHCl3

d(-)

Tetrahedral geometry

Polar molecule

slide60

O

Urea

NOT “di-urea”

H

H

H

H

N

N

O

C

C

N

N

H

H

H

H

CO(NH2)2

Urea – The first organic compound to be synthesized (Wohler, 1828).

propane

H

H

H

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

Propane

H

H

H

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

C3H8

butane

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

Butane

H H H H

H - C - C - C - C - H

H H H H

H

H

H

H

C4H10

H

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

nitrogen triiodide

..

N

I

I

107o

I

Nitrogen triiodide

N

I

I

I

NI3

Trigonal

Pyramidal

geometry

Video clip:

(slow motion)

detonation of NI3

supplies
Supplies
  • 15 black (carbon)
  • 8 green (chlorine and iodine)
  • 1 yellow (sulfur)
  • 4 blue (oxygen)
  • 4 red (nitrogen)
  • 42 hydrogen (hydrogen)
  • 67 bonds (bonds)
slide65

Cl

H

H

C

O

Cl

Cl

C

C

C

H

H

H

Cl

Cl

Cl

H

H

O

H

H

Cl

Cl

S

C

C

H

C

S

Cl

N

I

O

H

CO2

CH4

CCl4

C2H2

SH2

CHCl3

HCl

slide66

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

N

N

I

I

H

H

H

I

decomposition of nitrogen triiodide
Decomposition of Nitrogen Triiodide

N2

NI3

I2

2 NI3(s) N2(g) + 3 I2(g)

slide70

..

H

N

C

H

H

H

H

107o

109.5o

H

H

O

O

O

O

O

O

O3, ozone

..

O

H

..

104.5o

H

CH4, methane

NH3, ammonia

H2O, water

..

lone pair

electrons

the vsepr model

..

..

..

S

O

O

O

C

O

O

S

N

F

O

O

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

F

P

S

Xe

F

F

F

F

F

Cl

F

F

F

F

F

The VSEPR Model

The Shapes of Some Simple ABn Molecules

SO2

Linear

Bent

Trigonal

planar

Trigonal

pyramidal

AB6

T-shaped

Square

planar

Trigonal

bipyramidal

Octahedral

Brown, LeMay, Bursten, Chemistry The Central Science, 2000, page 305