DIASPORAS: MEASUREMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES LIKE REMITTANCES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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DIASPORAS: MEASUREMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES LIKE REMITTANCES

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  1. DIASPORAS: MEASUREMENT AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES LIKE REMITTANCES October 2012 B. Lindsay Lowell Director of Policy Studies Institute for the Study of International Migration Georgetown University

  2. DIASPORA, EXPATS, EMIGRES AND POPULATION ABROAD • Numbers relative to many source countries large and growing, especially highly educated • Potential for positive feedback to development is substantial if leveraged • Programmatic efforts would benefit from improved data: • on stock abroad, but also recurrent migration and particularly the characteristics and actions of the diaspora

  3. CENSUS BASED MEASURE OF ÉMIGRÉ POPULATIONS, 2000 ROUND • Foreign-born vs foreigner count in major host / immigrant-receiving countries • Completed education, gender, major occs • 2000 round of Censuses & databases: • World Bank • OECD • Other • 2010 Census rounds

  4. Scientists resident in OECD countries, 2000 (OECD.stat)

  5. 2010 CENSUS ROUNDData Collection on International Migration: UN StatisticsDivision

  6. Data Collection on International Migration: UN Statistics Division http://www.un.org/esa/population/meetings/tenthcoord2012/Census%20and%20Migration%20Questions%202012.pdf

  7. DIASPORAS AND CHANNELS THAT FOSTER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT BRAIN STRAIN AND OPTIMAL BRAIN DRAIN • An estimated one in ten tertiary educated adults born in the developing world resides in the developed world; 30 to 50 percent of those trained in science and technology. RETURN MIGRATION • The return of expatriates to their home country is widely perceived as being beneficial; favorable impacts have been attributed to returning scientists and engineers in Korea and China. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS • Remittances are the best known flow of monies from the diaspora to its homeland, but foreign currency accounts and bonds are designed to attract migrants’ monies, etc. ENTREPRENEURIAL INVESTMENT • There is a substantial amount of evidence of entrepreneurship and investment by the highly skilled. HOMETOWN ASSOCIATIONS • The HTAs are best known for sending “collective remittances” primarily for infrastructure and community-building efforts. IMMIGRATION AND TRADE • Research finds that diasporas have a substantial impact on trade flows. So-called nostalgic trade is simply a first-order creation. PROFESSIONAL DIASPORA NETWORKS • The expansion of networks and the transfer of knowledge are often cited as very important outcomes of diasporas.

  8. “BRAIN CIRCULATION NETWORKS" PROMOTED BY WORLD BANK, EXPAT NETWORKS CAN COUNTERBALANCE BRAIN STRAIN Examples: • Kea New Zealand (30,000 members worldwide) • http://www.keanewzealand.com/ • Indian global entrepreneurs' network: TIE • https://www.tie.org/ • Scotland's government funded, Global Scot • https://www.sdi.co.uk/globalscot.aspx • Australian expat organisation based in North America: Advance • http://advance.org/

  9. World Bank’s African Diaspora Program (ADP) World Bank African Diaspora Program Action Points Action Area 1: Formalize working relations with the African Union (AU) Action Area 2: Work with the African Development Bank to establish and support a Diaspora Remittance Investment Fund based Action Area 3: Use World Bank lending instruments, and in collaboration with African member countries, find ways of engaging the Diaspora Action Area 4: Establishing a multi-donor trust-funded African Diaspora Engagement and Facilitation Fund (ADEFF) to provide grant and technical assistance support to Diaspora organizations, Action Area 5: Work closely with partner country governments to assist in creating the “enabling environments” for Diaspora engagement Action Area 6: Work with Diaspora organizations and professionals, donor agencies and African governments to share knowledge and improve communications http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/AFRICAEXT/EXTDIASPORA/0,,contentMDK:21496629~pagePK:64168427~piPK:64168435~theSitePK:4246098,00.html

  10. SURVEY NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS • IOM Engaging Diasporas

  11. IOM’s Engaging Diasporas as Agents for Development, 2005 • 49 countries responded to the questionnaire • questionnaire contains 18 multiple-choice questions • answered by diverse governmental institutions & entities • Take stock of existing policies, institutions, tools & instruments • Understand policies for diasporas abroad & foreign nationals • Identify specific policy needs & priorities • Identify major obstacles • Explore the relationship between migration & development • Define regional trends. • http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/policy_and_research/research/Diaspora%20questionnaire%20analysis.pdf

  12. IOM’s Engaging Diasporas as Agents for Development, 2005

  13. SURVEYS OF NATIONAL/REGIONAL DIASPORA INDIVIDUALS ABROAD • IOM’s African MIDA project • Tanzanian survey • African online diaspora survey

  14. IOM, Migration for Development in Africa (MIDA) • Several modalities to transfer the competencies of the diaspora are possible. The innovations in the MIDA programme are its uses of the new information technologies to facilitate the mobility of competencies. • MIDA Database / Who should register? – You are a member of the African diaspora, and you would like to contribute to the development of your country of origin in key sectors such as: Agriculture, Arts and Humanities, Business and Commerce, Education, Health, Law, Public Administration and Services; Science and Technology • http://www.iom.int/jahia/Jahia/activities/by-theme/migration-development/mida-africa/diaspora-database • Ethiopia online diaspora questionnaire: • http://ethiopiandiaspora.org/questionaireform.asp • Africa recruit, capacity building: • http://www.africarecruit.com/

  15. Survey for Tanzania Diaspora Investment and Skills Forum (April 08) • Total of 676 responses • Respondents in UK, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, USA, others • 13% of the respondents belong to a Diaspora Association • Wide range of professional backgrounds with business, IT, finance significant • Reasons left: Career (67%) Family (18%) Economic (13%) Political (4%) • How long ago did you leave? –0-3 years to over 15 years ago (1/3rd) • 83% consider going back home at some point • 70% remit for sustenance • 34% remit for investment • http://www.africarecruit.com/SurveyonRemittances.htm

  16. Survey for Tanzania Diaspora Investment and Skills Forum (April 08)

  17. African Diaspora Survey on Remittances and Investment (2005) • 879 online survey forms completed • 58% remit for sustenance • 52% of these also remit for investment • 33% remit for investment • http://www.africarecruit.com/SurveyonRemittances.htm

  18. African Diaspora Survey on Remittances and Investment (2005)

  19. African Diaspora Survey on Remittances and Investment (2005)

  20. Kea New Zealand's global census, Every One Counts, 2006 • Online survey of 29,000+ New Zealanders in 155 countries • 18,000 responses from expatriates, plus • 11,000 spouses and children of respondents • 80% have tertiary education (compare 35% domestically) • 50% have some economic connection with New Zealand • http://www.keanewzealand.com/global/every-one-counts