challenging the frontiers of poverty reduction targeting the ultra poor a brac initiative l.
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Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction : Targeting the Ultra poor A BRAC INITIATIVE. Targeting the ultra poor. Ultra Poverty : Bangladesh Scenario Total Population : 130 million Ultra Poverty : 26% of the population (World Bank 1995) The Ultra Poor spend 80% of their income on food

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targeting the ultra poor
Targeting the ultra poor
  • Ultra Poverty : Bangladesh Scenario
  • Total Population : 130 million
  • Ultra Poverty : 26% of the population (World Bank 1995)
  • The Ultra Poor spend 80% of their income on food
  • Still fail to reach 80% of their recommended calorie intake.
targeting the ultra poor3
Targeting the ultra poor

BRAC’s two major programs for addressing ultra poverty are :

  • Income Generation for Vulnerable Groups Development Program (IGVGD) since 1987
  • Special Investment Program for the Specially Targeted Ultra Poor (STUP) since 2002
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Targeting the ultra poor
  • IGVGD Program Model : Special features
  • Partnership program
  • Selection of beneficiaries done by the Government
  • Program implementation model developed jointly by all partners
  • Group approach
  • Food support in terms of monthly wheat ration for 24months
  • Enterprise development Training
  • Social Awareness raising education
  • Credit support
  • Savings
  • Close Follow-up and supervision for 24 months
targeting the ultra poor5
Targeting the ultra poor
  • Major Lessons from IGVGD :
  • Most often the conventional microfinance program look at the ultra poor as high risk group
  • Disciplines of microfinance do not suit the livelihood pattern of the ultra poor
  • Ultra poor members do not feel confident about repayment of the loan
  • Absence of adequate social protection measures in existing MF interventions
  • 60%-65% of IGVGD members can benefit from the IGVGD program model. The rest - drop out
  • Something else needs to be done for those category of ultra poor who cannot make use of Food+credit model.
targeting the ultra poor6
Targeting the ultra poor

THEREFORE , BRAC’S NEW TAILOR MADE APPROACH FOR THE ULTRA POOR SINCE 2002 :

Special Investment Program for the Specially Targeted Ultra Poor

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Targeting the ultra poor

Objective of the program

Creating solid economic and social capital base for the ultra poor population in rural Bangladesh

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Targeting the ultra poor
  • Definition of the Ultra Poor
  • households with < 10 decimals of land
  • earns livelihood as beggar, day laborer, domestic aid
  • no productive assets
  • children of school-going age
  • taking up paid work
  • no adult male active member in the household
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Targeting the ultra poor

Identification process

  • Districts and Sub-districts with severe food insecurity , and very high poverty level , identified
  • NGO Survey carried out to see the volume and types of NGO interventions addressing the ultra poor in those districts and sub-districts
  • More specific villages identified which had severe concentration of ultra poverty
  • Participatory Rural Appraisal meeting held with the villagers, Primary list of Ultra poor produced by the villagers through Social Mapping and wealth ranking
  • Door to door survey by BRAC's Staff / preliminary selection
  • Final Selection after Verification
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Targeting the ultra poor
  • Some Base line information : sample size 5000
  • Only 2.6% of the ultra poor household reported ever participation in NGOs
  • 53.7% completely landless
  • 70% depends on day labourer for income source
  • 5.7% earns from begging
  • 16.9% households reported always food deficit
  • 48% of household cannot afford two meals a day
  • only 6.8% pregnant mothers had their Blood pressure checked as ANC
  • Death rate of <1year children - 49.3%
  • 32.6% ultra poor member dies without accessing any sort of treatment
  • 95% ultra poor have no fixed place for sanitation
  • 45.1% do not use delivery kit for child delivery
  • 96.2%do not take iodized salt
challenging the frontiers of poverty reduction targeting the ultra poor
Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction Targeting the Ultra Poor
  • Programme Coverage
  • Year : 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Total
  • Members
  • served : 5000 5000 10,000 25,000 25,000 70,000
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Challenging The Frontiers of Poverty Reduction Targeting the Ultra Poor

Support provided to the ultra poor

  • Enterprise Development Training
  • Assets Transfer to start an enterprise
  • Stipend
  • Social awareness raising education and community mobilization
  • Essential Health care , health education , financial assistance .
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Targeting the ultra poor
  • Enterprise Development Training
  • Class-room Training on Enterprise Development : 3-day basic ; 11 refresher courses in the following 11 months.
  • Hands on Training in terms of weekly individual follow-up
  • Ensuring technical support to run the enterprise
  • Create market link for different enterprises
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Targeting the ultra poor
  • Asset Transfer to the enterprise
  • Livestock rearing
  • Poultry Rearing
  • Vegetable Cultivation
  • Non-farm Activities
  • Horticulture Nursery
  • Wage employment ( shoe factory , bakery , napkin centres)
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Targeting the ultra poor

Some Exclusive Features of the Special Investment Component

  • Value of asset : Average US$ 100
  • Support in kind
  • Weekly stipend for short term income support
  • Close supervision for 24 months
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Targeting the ultra poor
  • Tailor made Social Development program for the Ultra poor
  • Weekly informal discussion session on paralegal issues
  • Confidence Building Training after 18 months.
  • Local Community Leaders Workshop to activate and enhance the commitments of the local authorities.
  • Legal support from BRAC’s Legal Aid Clinic .
  • Popular Theatre
  • Advocacy workshops , seminars
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Targeting the ultra poor
  • Community Mobilization Through Village Poverty alleviation Committee
  • 7-9 member Village Poverty alleviation committee formed
  • Social security ensured , social conflicts resolved by this committee
  • tube well , sanitary latrines installed through locally mobilized funds and resources.
  • houses repaired/ rebuilt through locally mobilized
  • funds and resources.
  • children of ultra poor families enrolled in schools by the committee
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Targeting the ultra poor
  • Tailor madeHealthInterventions for the ultra Poor
  • First strategy: Social Mobilization , Health Awareness raising , Basic Health Care.
  • Second Strategy : Financial Assistance For Mild and Severe morbidity

- Health ID Card for the Ultra Poor

- Create Strong Linkage with other Health Service providers

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Targeting the Ultra Poor
  • Some findings from External Evaluation 2004 and 2005
  • The program is assisting the ultra poor members to move out of extreme poverty on a sustainable basis.
  • Ultra Poor members are making solid progress in growing their asset base
  • 75% of members have built the foundation for a sustainable livelihood.
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Targeting the Ultra Poor
  • An indicator of improvement is diversification of IGAs. Over 90% members have more than two sources of income.
  • The dominant plan among STUP women looking to future investment is to acquire their own land
  • 84.5% now eats three meals a day (54% at base line)
  • 89.4% of school aged children are enrolled in school ( 65% at base line)
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Targeting the Ultra Poor
  • Lessons Learned
  • Close supervision model is a must for any program for the ultra poor
  • supervision must address assessing the current needs and counseling on how to graduate beyond ultra poverty
  • Educating the ultra poor members about their future planning is crucial
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Targeting the Ultra Poor
  • Lessons Learned
  • Special efforts needed to change the mind set of the participants who might consider the assets transfered to them as a “relief” item.
  • Community mobilization effort is necessary in order to ensure social security and to create enabling environment within the community.
wider learning
Wider Learning
  • Products

Assets and Access

Grants and Targeting

Broad-based Intervention

Village Institutions

  • Management

Supervision

  • Training

Empathy and Commitment

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Targeting the ultra poor

For more information about BRAC’s Ultra Poor Program Pls. see our website : www.bracresearch.org

THANKYOU