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Dorling, D., Rigby, J., Wheeler, B., Ballas, D., Thomas, B. (Sheffield) Fahmy, E., Gordon, D. (Bristol) & Lupton, R. (IoE London). Poverty, Wealth and Place in Britain, 1968-2005 Funded by Joseph Rowntree Foundation.

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poverty wealth and place in britain 1968 2005 funded by joseph rowntree foundation

Dorling, D., Rigby, J., Wheeler, B., Ballas, D., Thomas, B. (Sheffield)Fahmy, E., Gordon, D. (Bristol) & Lupton, R. (IoE London)

Poverty, Wealth and Place in Britain, 1968-2005

Funded by Joseph Rowntree Foundation

objectives significance
Research Question: How has the geography of poverty and wealth in Britain changed over time?

Research Aim: To develop longitudinally consistent measures of poverty and wealth based upon secondary data sources which can then be applied to UK Census data at a small area level for the period 1971-2005

Research Significance:

The first attempt to derive longitudinally consistent estimates of poverty and its spatial distribution spanning more than 40 years

The first attempt to operationalise small-area measures of wealth in the UK

Objectives & Significance
data sources
Poverty & Core Poverty:

1968/9 Household Resources & Standard of Living Survey (Townsend)

1983 Poor Britain Survey (Mack & Lansley)

1990 Breadline Britain Survey (Gordon & Pantazis)

1999 Poverty & Social Exclusion Survey (Gordon et al.)

Asset Wealth:

Tract-level data on housing asset ownership (Thomas & Dorling, 2004)

Exclusive Wealth:

Family Expenditure Survey data for the years:

1970-72

1980-1

1990-92

2000-02

Data Sources
definitions
Poverty:

“Breadline” method (Gordon, 1995): Households are poor if they have:

A low standard of living

AND a low household income

Core poverty:

A priori (Whelan et al., 2002): Households are poor if they:

Lack any ‘key’ necessities

AND have a low income (lt 70% median)

AND are ‘subjectively’ poor

Exclusive Wealthy:

Theoretically derived (Veblen, ; Scott, 1994): Households able to ‘self-exclude’ through private expenditure (eg. private schools, healthcare, domestic services) and ‘conspicuous consumption’ (expensive holidays, cars, etc.)

Asset Wealthy:

Household are wealthy if housing assets are above a threshold defined by:

Inheritance Tax threshold

Share of national wealth accounted for by housing

Definitions
predictors of small area poverty 1971 2001 odds ratios
Predictors of Small-Area Poverty: 1971-2001 (Odds Ratios)

Logistic Regression odds ratios (B[exp]): all sig. at .05 level

principal findings
1970s:

Breadline and Core Poverty declined

Breadline and Core Poverty declined

1980s:

Increase in asset wealthy households

Decline in exclusive wealthy

1990s:

Continuing rise in ‘breadline’ poverty, but concurrent decline in ‘core’ poverty

Increase in exclusive wealthy household

Spatial Polarisation:

Social polarisation declined during the 1970s

Poverty and wealth both became increasingly spatially concentrated during the 1980s and 1990s

The proportion of ‘middling’ households (neither rich nor poor) has declined steadily

More than ever, rich and poor households lead separate lives

Principal Findings
spatial polarisation of the population by tract breadline poverty density 1971 2001
Spatial polarisation of the population by tract breadline poverty density, 1971-2001

Proportion of population living in tracts withless than specified proportions of central poverty rate as follows:

spatial polarisation of the population by tract asset wealth density 1971 2001
Spatial polarisation of the population by tract asset wealth density, 1971-2001

Proportion of population living in tracts withless than specified proportions of central asset wealth rate as follows:

poverty wealth and place in britain 1968 2005 funded by joseph rowntree foundation1

Dorling, D., Rigby, J., Wheeler, B., Ballas, D., Thomas, B. (Sheffield)Fahmy, E., Gordon, D. (Bristol) & Lupton, R. (IoE London)

Poverty, Wealth and Place in Britain, 1968-2005

Funded by Joseph Rowntree Foundation