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Scrolls from the Judean Desert. By Dr. William Barrick Master’s Seminary. Introduction. DSS provide vital information: Judaism (300 B.C. – A.D. 135) Text of the Old Testament Discovered 1947-48 Publication of finds took over 50 years. Muhammad ed Dhib (“The Wolf”).

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scrolls from the judean desert

Scrollsfrom the Judean Desert

By Dr. William Barrick

Master’s Seminary

introduction
Introduction
  • DSS provide vital information:
    • Judaism (300 B.C.–A.D. 135)
    • Text of the Old Testament
  • Discovered 1947-48
  • Publication of finds took over 50 years.

Muhammad ed Dhib (“The Wolf”)

scrolls fragments
Scrolls & Fragments
  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek
scrolls fragments1
Scrolls & Fragments
  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek
  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at
slide5
Ancient scrolls in jars near Jericho (3rd and 8th centuries A.D.)

Essene community; 11 nearby caves

Jewish suicide pact in the face of the Roman army

qumran caves
Copper (Treasure) ScrollQumran Caves

Psalms Scroll and Temple Scroll

Isaiah Scrolls, Habakkuk Commentary, “Rules” Scroll, War Scroll, Thanksgiving Hymns

Amos, Damascus Document

Song of Songs

Greek Texts Only

140 Biblical Scrolls

scrolls fragments2
Scrolls & Fragments
  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek
  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at
  • 900 different texts
scrolls fragments3
Scrolls & Fragments
  • 3 Languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek
  • 9 Sites: Qumran, Masada, Nahial Hiever, Wadi Murabba‘at
  • 900 different texts
  • Thousands of fragments

1Q22 (1QDM) The Words of Moses

qumran scrolls
Qumran Scrolls
  • Psalms 36
  • Deuteronomy 30
  • Isaiah 21
  • Genesis 19
  • Esther absent
  • Nehemiah?
qumr an pentateuch scr olls
QumranPentateuch Scrolls
  • Genesis 19
  • Exodus 17
  • Leviticus 13
  • Numbers 7
  • Deuteronomy 30
hebrew scripts
Hebrew Scripts
  • Paleo-Hebrew Script = Phoenician
  • Jewish Script = Square Script = Aramaic

h w h y

h w h y

verse by verse commentary
1QpHab

rvp

“The interpretation of the passage is that God will not

destroy his people by the hand of the nations, but into

the hand of his chosen ones God will give the judgment

of all the nations. …”

Verse by Verse Commentary

Habakkuk Commentary from Qumran Cave 1

Habakkuk 1-2

great isaiah scroll
Great Isaiah Scroll
  • Longest of the DSS scrolls
  • Full text of Isaiah

col. liv

col. liii

1QIsa

slide15
Qumran manuscripts spell daom. as: dam, hdam, dwam, hdawm, and hdwm

1QIsa col. xliv

^yl,[' = hkyl[

`dao)m. Hb;Þg"w> aF'²nIw> ~Wrôy" yDI_b.[; lyKiÞf.y: hNEïhi

1st Isaiah scroll found in Qumran Cave 1

Isaiah

52:13-54:4

St. Mark’s

Monastery

Isaiah Scroll

slide16
hb'v.n"å hw"ßhy> x:Wrï yKi² #yciê lbe(n"å ‘rycix' vbeÛy"

#yci_ lbe(n"å ryciÞx' vbeîy" `~['(h' ryciÞx' !kEïa' AB+ s `~l'(A[l. ~Wqïy" WnyheÞl{a/-rb;d>W

1QIsa (Isaiah 40:6-20)

slide17
Types of Differences Between 1QIsb and Codex Leningrad B19A

Orthography 107

Addition of conjunctive waw 16

Lack of conjunctive waw 13

Article (addition/omission) 4

Differences in consonants 10

Missing letters 5

Differences in number 14

Differences in pronouns 6

Different grammatical forms 24

Different prepositions 9

Different words 11

Omission of words 5

Addition of words 6

Different sequence 4

examples of differences
Examples of Differences
  • Isaiah 6:3
    • MT: “holy, holy, holy”; Q: “holy, holy”
  • Isaiah 12:4
    • MT: “you (pl.) will say”; Q: “you (sing.) …”
  • Isaiah 37:25
    • MT: “waters”; Q: “strange waters” (2 Kgs 19:24)
  • Isaiah 53:11
    • MT: “he shall see”; Q: “he shall see light”
slide19
4QpaleoLev

larfy

7:34

wynb

7:35

rva

7:36

wy

ynb

Paleo-Hebrew Manuscript of Leviticus

from Qumran Cave 4

psalms 93 150 8 noncanonical psalms
11QPsa

1st Psalms scroll found in Qumran Cave 11

xvii

xvi

xv

xviii

136:26; 118:1, 15-16, 8-9, 29; 145:1-7

Psalms 93-150 + 8 Noncanonical Psalms

135:17-21; 136:1-16

154:3-19

145:13-21+

No Poetic Format

Different Order

slide21
Textual Status of the 210+ Biblical Texts from Qumran

Written in Qumran Practice 20%

May have used proto-Masoretic texts.

Proto-Masoretic Texts [60%] 35%

Pre-Samaritan Texts 5%

Septuagintal Affinity Texts 5%

Non-aligned Texts [15%] 35%

Sometimes agree significantly with Masoretic Text.

slide22
Qumran’s 210+ Biblical Texts

Qumran Practice

Non- Aligned

MT 35%

Samaritan Pentateuch

LXX 5%

slide23
HILLS of MOAB

QUMRAN

DEAD SEA

CAVE 4

WADI QUMRAN

archaeological debate
Archaeological Debate

Scriptorium?

Inkwells

dss new testament
DSS & New Testament
  • All fragments in Cave 7 are Greek.
  • Some: Book of Enoch.

7Q5 “Mark” Fragment?

zechariah scroll fragment found in nahal hever cave
Zechariah scroll fragment found in Nahal Hiever Cave

8HievXIIgr

Zechariah scroll fragment found in Nahal Hever cave

as Hamath also [which borders on i]t, Tyre and Si[don, though th]ey are very wise

Zech 9:2

masada
MASADA

Herod’s Palace on the North End of Masada

ot textual evidence
ORIGINAL HEBREW TEXT

Before 400 B.C.

SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH

OT Textual Evidence

400-100 B.C.

Before 1947, 1250-Year Gap between Hebrew Texts

DEAD SEA SCROLLS

300 B.C.-A.D. 50

250-150 B.C.

SEPTUAGINT

SYRIAC PESHITTA

A.D. 125-400

HEXAPLA

A.D. 230

LATIN VULGATE

A.D. 390-404

OLDEST HEBREW MANUSCRIPT

A.D. 850

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