Predict the enterobacteriaceae decontamination of feed by pelleting system
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Predict the enterobacteriaceae decontamination of feed by pelleting system. F. Putier – Manager www.tecaliman.com. Context/Objectives. Programme context and objectives Context Regulation EC 2160 2003 zoonosis Discussion between the sector and the French Ministry of agriculture

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Predict the enterobacteriaceae decontamination of feed by pelleting system

Predict the enterobacteriaceae decontamination of feed by pelleting system

F. Putier – Manager

www.tecaliman.com


Context objectives
Context/Objectives

  • Programme context and objectives

    • Context

      • Regulation EC 2160 2003 zoonosis

      • Discussion between the sector and the French Ministry of agriculture

      • Research programme set up

    • Objectives

      • To demonstrate and validate the impact of granulation on the bacteriological quality of feeds

      • Creation of minimum decontamination conditions

      • Introduction and circulation of a protocol


Objectives

56 trials on pilot press

16 industrial exploratory trials

84 trials at industrial sites

Validation of decontaminating effect

<3 log in finishing product and of 3 log during process

Set of tables

Protocol proposal to test industrial line effect

 Validation of protocol and tables

Circulation of protocol

Objectives

Phase 1

Phase 2


Phase 1 principle
Phase 1: Principle

  • Creation of granulation trials

    • Four feeds concerned

      • Pig  Laying hen

      • Ckicken  Turkey

    • Granulation according to defined methods

      • Processor exit temperature

      • Die plate thickness

      • Granulation speed

    • Samples before and after granulation

    • Enterobacteria analysis (standard NF V08 054 at 37°C) and total flora (NF V08 051)

Related to retention time in the die plate


Phase 1 equipment

Chicken

656 µm/64°

Turkey

635 µm/ 59 °

Pig

542 µm/65°

Laying hen

516 µm/66°

Phase 1: Equipment

  • Feeds

  • Gondard mixer with twin coils of 224 l

  • Granulation press and pilot coolers

  • Disinfected sampling equipment

 Wheat/Barley Maize Oil cakesCarbonate Other

1% pointer waste

CLM 12 Meccanica press

11 kW - 50 at 800 kg/hr

Acquisition

Power

T° pellets/flour

Steam rate

Die plate

4/20 4/24

4/35 4/45

4/50


Phase 1 method

Compression rates

50

45

2

90

53

67

35

83

24

20

Phase 1: Method

  • Composite central plan

14 trials per feed

Processing T°

45

Uses

Reduction in number of trials

Entire space scanned

Allowance for day effect

Very powerful statistically


Phase 1 results

6

5

4

Population in enterobacteria (log

UFC/g)

3

2

1

0

20 67°

24 51°

24 83°

35 45°

35 67°

35 90°

45 51°

45 83°

50 67°

Hopper entry

Processor exit

Cooler exit

Phase 1: Results

  • Raw data : example on Pig feed

Variations over entire field selected

Strong impact of die sequence


Phase 1 results1

6

5

4

UFC/g)

3

Population in enterobacteria (log

2

1

0

20 67°

24 51°

24 83°

35 45°

35 67°

35 90°

45 51°

45 83°

50 67°

Phase 1: Results

  • Raw data : example on Turkey feed

Hopper entry

Processor exit

Cooler exit

Variations over entire field selected

Lower impact of die sequence


Phase 1 results2
Phase 1: Results

  • Raw data

 decontamination with  die temperature

To obtain  3 log  ≈ 87°C at die exit


Phase 1 results3
Phase 1: Results

  • Raw data

final contamination with  die temperature

To obtain <3 log after cooler  ≈ 82°C at die exit


Introducing tables
Introducing tables

 enterobacteria via the granulation process

  • Example on chicken feed

log

ET

-

AC

95

95

3.0

85

85

3.5

4.0

75

75

4.5

5.0

Temperature After conditioning TAC (°C)

65

65

ET-SR =14.65 + 0.054 F-0.54 TSC +0.004 TSC2

ET-AC=14.65 + 0.054 F – 0.54 TEC + 0.004 TAC2

55

55

45

45

20

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

45

45

50

50

Length of die plate ducts – F (mm)

  • Computing multilinear regressions and models to predict :

  • Post-treatment contamination

  • Decontamination

  • Decontamination model adopted 2 curves used to produce :

  • One table with margin

  • One table without margin


Introducing tables1

95

90

85

80

75

T° at processor exit (°C)

70

65

60

55

50

45

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

Retention time in die plate (s)

Turkey with Margin

Chicken with Margin

Turkey without Margin

Chicken without Margin

Introducing tables

  • Chicken and turkey feeds


Introducing tables2

90

85

80

75

70

T° at processor exit (°C)

65

60

55

50

45

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

Retention time in die plate (s)

Pig with Margin

Laying Hen with Margin

Pig without Margin

Laying Hen without Margin

Introducing tables

  • Pig and Laying Hen feeds


Phase 2 principle
Phase 2 : Principle

  • Application of table at industrial sites

Samples from entire batch

at different points

Counting enterobacteria and total flora


Phase 2 equipment and method
Phase 2: Equipment and method

84 trials at 11 industrial sites  3 trials per feed x 3 feeds

24 pig  12 laying hen  27 chicken  21 turkey

Setting up granulation conditions

Setting up trials

2 trials with margin, 1 without

Industrial mixer

Granulation line

 Ordinary conditioning/ no pre-compression

 Presses 120 to 260 kW/Steam power from 0.8 to 4 b

Industrial and pilot coolers


Phase 2 results

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

Flora in enterobacteria at cooler exit

2.5

(UFC/g)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

70

75

80

85

90

95

Temperature die exit (°C)

Phase 2: Results

  • Pig and laying hen feeds

    • Cooler exit / Die exit temperature

Objective <3 log

Efficient tables

for enterobacteria with the T° acquired by the feed in the die


Phase 2 results1

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

Flora in enterobacteria at cooler exit

2.5

(UFC/g)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

50

60

70

80

Temperature conditioning exit (°C)

Phase 2: Results

  • Pig and laying hen feeds

    • Cooler exit/ Die exit temperature

Objective <3 log

Variability of contamination with a conditioning T° of 60°C  Variability of T° acquired in the die plate

For T° > 70°C  high decontamination


Phase 2 results2

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

Flora in enterobacteria at cooler exit

(UFC/g)

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

70

75

80

85

90

95

Temperature die exit

(

°C

)

Phase 2: Results

  • Chicken and turkey feeds

    • Cooler exit / Die exit temperature

Objective <3 log

Enterobacteria with the T° acquired by the feed in the die

T° tested between 63 and 85°C at conditioning exit


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • Granulation effect demonstrated

  • Sufficient effectiveness of table

    • Chicken/turkey feed

      • High temperatures required

      • Tables with and without margins effective (T°>67°C)

      • Speed less important than T° at conditioning exit

    • Pig/laying hen feed

      • Little effort required for temperature and speed

      • Retention time often long

      • Table without margin should be sufficient

  • Allowance for batch start when tables have not yet been reached

  • Need for bacteriological management of sites