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Assessment of Exposures to Mobile Source Air Toxics. Eric M. Fujita Barbara Zielinska Division of Atmospheric Sciences Desert Research Institute Reno, NV Air Toxics Workshop II Houston, Texas June 12-13, 2007. June 12, 2007. Desert Research Institute. Assessing Exposures to MSATs.

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slide1

Assessment of Exposures to Mobile Source Air Toxics

Eric M. Fujita

Barbara Zielinska

Division of Atmospheric Sciences

Desert Research Institute

Reno, NV

Air Toxics Workshop II

Houston, Texas

June 12-13, 2007

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide2

Assessing Exposures to MSATs

  • Estimating Exposures to MSAT
    • Ambient concentrations at fixed sites versus vehicle dominated microenvironments.
    • Time spent in various microenvironments by population groups.
    • Ambient versus personal breathing zone concentrations.
  • Variations in pollutant concentrations and composition in mobile source dominated locations.
    • Spatial variations due to proximity.
    • Temporal variations (diurnal, daily, day-of-week, and seasonal).
    • Traffic mix (diesel vs. gasoline, gross polluters vs. normal emitters, vehicle operating mode).
    • Atmospheric transformation (chemical and physical).

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Comparative Toxicity Study
    • Sponsor: DOE’s Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies
  • Weekend Ozone Study
    • Sponsor: DOE’s Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies; Coordinating Research Council
    • Additional Support: South Coast Air Quality Management District
  • Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study
    • Sponsor: DOE’s Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies
    • Additional Support: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. California Bureau of Automotive Repair, South Coast Air Quality Management District, Ralph’s Supermarket Distribution Center
  • Kansas City Vehicle Characterization Study
    • Sponsor: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Transportation and Air Quality
    • Additional Support: DOE’s Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies, Coordinating Research Council, U.S. Federal Highway Administration.
  • Section 211(B) Tier 2 High End Exposures
    • Sponsor: American Petroleum Institute
    • Additional Input: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Assessing Exposure to Air Toxics in Microenvironments Dominated by Mobile Sources
    • Sponsor: Health Effects Institute
    • Additional Support: South Coast Air Quality Management District.
  • Atmospheric Transformations of Diesel Exhaust
    • Sponsor: Health Effects Institute
slide4

References

Fujita, E.M., D.E. Campbell, B. Zielinska, J.C. Sagebiel, J.L. Bowen, W. Goliff, W.R. Stockwell, and D.R. Lawson (2003). Diurnal and Weekday Variations in Source Contributions of Ozone Precursors in California’s South Coast Air Basin. J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc.53: 844-863.

Zielinska, B., W.S. Goliff, M. McDaniel, T. Cahill, D. Kittleson and W. Watts (2003). Chemical Analyses of Collected Diesel Particulate Matter Samples in the CRC E-43 Project. Prepared for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO.

Zielinska, B. J. Sagebiel, J.D. McDonald, K. Whitney and D.R. Lawson (2004). Emission Rates and Comparative Chemical Composition from Selected In-Use Diesel and Gasoline-Fueled Vehicles. J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc.54:1138-1150.

Fujita, E.M. and D.E. Campbell (2006). Spatial and Temporal Variations in Exposure to Air Toxics in the South Coast Air Basin. Final report submitted by Desert Research Institute to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, August 31, 2006.

Fujita, E.M., D.E. Campbell, B. Zielinska, W.P. Arnott and J.C. Chow (2007). Exposure to Air Toxics in Mobile Source Dominated Microenvironments. Draft report submitted by Desert Research Institute to the Health Effects Institute, Boston, MA, February 6, 2007.

Fujita, E.M., B. Zielinska, D.E. Campbell, W.P. Arnott, J. Sagebiel, L. Reinhart, J.C. Chow, N. P.A. Gabele, W. Crews, R. Snow, N. Clark, S. Wayne and D.R. Lawson (2007). Variations in speciated emissions from spark-ignition and compression ignition motor vehicles in the California's South Coast Air Basin. J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc.57:705-720.

Fujita, E. M., D. E. Campbell, W. P. Arnott, B. Zielinska (2007). Evaluations Of Source Apportionment Methods for Determining Contributions Of Gasoline and Diesel Exhaust to Ambient Carbonaceous Aerosols. J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc.57:721-740.

Zielinska, B., J. Sagebiel, S. Samy, JC. Seagrave, J. McDonald, P. Wiesen and K. Wirtz (2007) Atmospheric Transformation of Diesel Emissions, Poster presented at 2006 HEI Annual Conference, Chicago, Il, April 15-17, 2006.

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide5

Average Hourly Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty Traffic Volumes Weigh-in-Motion Sites in Interior of South Coast Air Basin

Light-Duty

Heavy-Duty

DOE NREL Weekend Ozone Study

Courtesy of Sonoma Technology, Inc., 2002

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide6

Photoacoustic Black Carbon (1-minute averages)

Sunday

Weekday

Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide7

Weekday Variations in CO and Black Carbon at Azusa9/30/00 to 10/8/00 - Weekend Ozone Study

Weekend Ozone Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide8

Weekday Variations in BC & NOx versus CO & NMHC at Azusa9/30/00 to 10/8/00 - Weekend Ozone Study

CO and NMHC

BC and NOx

Weekend Ozone Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide9

CMB Source Contribution Estimates for Total Carbonat Azusa, Los Angeles and Other Sites

Mainly diesel at Azusa and LA, but mixed at other sites

Large residual fraction.

Gasoline/Diesel PM Split Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide10

CMB Source Contribution Estimates for Benzene & Toluene

Weekend Ozone Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide11

DustTrak PM mass (ug/m3) for Phase 2 of the LA92 CycleSummer Study

Stratum 5 (pre-81)

Stratum 6 (1981-90)

Stratum 7 (1991-95)

Stratum 8 (1996+)

Kansas City Vehicle Emissions Characterization Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide12

Ascending PM2.5 Emission Rates within Model Year GroupsKansas City Vehicle Emissions Characterization Study

High emitters contributed a disproportionate share of the PM emissions (17% in Round 1 and 24% in Round 2 contribute 75% of the total).

Source: EPA OTAQ

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide13

Kansas City Vehicle Characterization Study- Summer Volatile, Semi-Volatile and Particulate PAHs

Kansas City Vehicle Characterization Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide14

Comparative Emissions and Toxicity of Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles

F = Filter

P = PUF/XAD

Gasoline Vehicles

G: Average Gasoline at 72° F

BG: Black Smoker at 72° F

WG: White Smoker at 72° F

G30: G at 30° F

NG: New Technology

Diesel Vehicles

D: Average Diesel at 72° F

HD: High PM Emitter at 72° F

D30: D at 30° F

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide15

Chamber Reaction of Toluene with Diesel ExhaustOpen Path FTIR Data

HEI Study – Atmospheric Transformations of Diesel Exhaust

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide16

Time Evolution of Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions with Photochemical Reactions of Toluene

  • Addition of ~500 ppb of toluene (NOx ~100 ppb) resulted in a substantial secondary aerosol formation.
  • Initial DPM concentration: 9 µg/m3
  • peak PM concentration: 57 µg/m3

HEI Study – Atmospheric Transformations of Diesel Exhaust

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide17

Tunnel

Inlet

Tunnel

outlet

Regional

Background

Particle Number Concentration Distribution at the Tuscarora Tunnel, 5/21/99

* Source: HEI Project 98-3 courtesy of Dr. Fred Rogers, Desert Research Institute.

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide18

Concentration Distributions on nano-MOUDI Stagesof Organic Compounds in Diesel Exhaust (Light Cruise)

Source: Zielinska et al. 2003, Project Report for CRC-E43.

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide19

Black Carbon (1-minute) by Photoacoustic

Diamond Bar

60

Lynwood

710

605

405

110

91

Long Beach

Health Effects Institute Project RFA03-1

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide20

Comparisons of On-Road Versus Fixed StationSummer Morning CO

Health Effects Institute Project RFA03-1

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide21

Comparisons of On-Road Versus Fixed StationSummer Morning NOx

Health Effects Institute Project RFA03-1

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide22

Distributions of BTEX Exposures in Atlanta MEs

132

65

583

304

25

2454

58

80

98

465

40

533

Max

3rd Qtr

Ave

Med

1st Qtr

Min

API Section 211(B) Tier 2 Exposure Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide23

Mean ME to Air Monitoring Station Ratiosof MSAT for Corresponding Hours - Houston

Log Scale

API Section 211(B) Tier 2 Exposure Study

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute

slide24

Summary and Conclusions

  • Ambient levels of volatile organic MSATs in the SoCAB were mainly associated with gasoline vehicles.
    • On-road CO, NMHC, and volatile MSATs were 2-5 times higher than fixed monitoring sites (1-hour averages).
  • Diesel vehicles were the dominant mobile source of EC and TC at two fixed monitoring sites (Azusa and Los Angeles).
    • However source contributions of gasoline and diesel vehicles varied with location and time.
    • On-road NO and BC were about an order of magnitude higher than at fixed monitoring sites (1-hour averages).
  • Short-term on-road exposures (few minute or less) can be substantially higher (10 to 100 times higher) and depend on proximity of high gasoline emitters and diesel trucks.
  • Over half of the organic carbon during summer in the SoCAB could not be apportioned to directly-emitted PM emissions from motor vehicles.
    • Gasoline vehicles are predominant source of anthropogenic SOA precursors (volatile and semi-volatile aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Concentrations of ultrafine particles (<0.1 m) are greatest in fresh emissions and rapidly grow to accumulation size particles (0.1 to 1.0 m).
  • High emitters contributed a disproportionate share of the PM emissions (about 20% of the vehicles contributed 75% of the total).

June 12, 2007

Desert Research Institute