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Texas Indians

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  1. Texas Indians

  2. Native Americans of Texas • Origins of people in Texas -Beringia (Ice Bridge from Asia 18,000-20,000 years ago -Migration to Texas during Paleo-period (13,000 years ago) a) Came for the comfort of the “savannah” b) Pursuit of the mammoth c) Emergence of the Bison *Video of First Americans

  3. The Nine Major Groups of Indians

  4. 1. Caddo • Most advanced of all cultures • Located in East Texas • Great traders • Great Spiritual Leadership of Grand Xinesi(pronounced chenesi-means Mr. Moon)

  5. 2. Atakapan • Farmers and hunters • Lived off the alligator • Religion- man came from the sea on a giant oyster • Noted for cannibalism (used as a punishment)

  6. 3. Karankawa • Lived in the Gulf Coast Area • Believed in two gods • Very physical people (loved to wrestle) • Covered from head to toe in tattoos • No clothing and had many piercings • No marital fidelity (multiple wives) • Children were nursed until they were 12-13 years old

  7. 4. Coahuiltecan • Lived in South Texas • Over 200 “families” existed • Hunters, gathered berries and nuts

  8. 5. Tonakawa • Lived in Central Texas • Tonakawa means “the people of the wolf” • Refused to farm, because wolves don’t farm…they hunt! • Enemies of the Comanchesand Apaches

  9. 6. Wichita • Lived in Central Texas • Hunters, gatherers, and excellent farmers

  10. 7. Apache • Lived in West Texas and the Panhandle • The most understood tribe in history • Agricultural tribe turned horse culture because of the buffalo • Perfected the use of the bow and arrow • Very disciplined group (believed in a family unit) • Violent when protecting their beliefs

  11. Apaches perfected riding and shooting a bow and arrow

  12. 8. Comanche • Masters of the bow and arrow rode horses with skill • Had guns because of the French • Replaced the Apaches by the end of the 17th century • Apaches and Comanches loathed each other

  13. New Power in the Horse

  14. 9. Jumano • “Hippies” of Texas culture • Male and female were equal • Trans-pecos Era • Survived European contact • Developed irrigation and perfected agriculture