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Quarter Three Notes. America Needed a Government. The Peace of Paris was the treaty that ended the American Revolution England was no longer in control The Founding Fathers met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation (1789) They ended up creating a new constitution.

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America needed a government
America Needed a Government

  • The Peace of Paris was the treaty that ended the American Revolution

    • England was no longer in control

  • The Founding Fathers met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation (1789)

    • They ended up creating a new constitution


Problems with the articles
Problems with the Articles

  • There was no national or federal government or President, just governors

    • The states were arguing and confused

      • Other nations were confused too, uh who do we trade with?

        • What money do we use


American governments
American Governments

  • The American Indians had various forms of government in America for the last 8000 years

  • After the American Revolution our first government was the Articles of Confederation

    • This system had no President or national capitol

  • The next system was our current Constitution

    • Ratified or voted on in 1791


A democracy
A Democracy

  • Democracy

    • Rule by Majority

      • In a Democracy, The individual, and any group of individuals composing any minority, have no protection against the unlimited power of the majority.

        • Laws could be racist or sexist or against immigrants if these groups are the minority


A republic
A Republic

  • Republic

    • controls the majority strictly, as well as all others among the people, primarily to protect the individual’s unalienable rights

      • protects the rights of the minority and the liberties of people in general


Goals and principles
Goals and Principles

  • The Preamble

    • the opening statement, defining six goals of our government

  • The Articles

    • establish the framework for our government, first three describe three branches of power

  • The Amendments

    • Twenty-seven (27) formal changes have been made

      • the first ten, known as the Bill of Rights, were added right away in 1791


3 branches of government
3 Branches of Government

  • Legislative

    • Creates the laws

  • Executive

    • Carries out the laws

    • Runs the country

  • Judicial

    • Interprets the laws


Legislative branch
Legislative Branch

  • Two Branches, both meet in D.C. at Congress twice a year

    • House is based upon the large state plan from the Philadelphia Convention (1788)

      • The House has a Speaker who regulates debates and controls the agenda

        • John Boehner (2012)

    • Senate is based upon the small state plan


Legislative branch house of representatives

435 members

About 1 rep. for each 625,000 Americans

Should know and represent their districts values

Have their position for 2 years

Can be re-elected

Pay is $174,000

Legislative Branch: House of Representatives


Legislative branch senate
Legislative Branch: Senate

  • 100 members

    • Each state has 2 Senators

    • Should know and represent their states values

      • Confirms and approves many Presidential choices

    • Term is for 6 years

      • Can be re-elected

      • Pay is $174,000


Executive branch
Executive Branch

  • Carries out the laws

  • Run affairs of the national government

  • Largest branch of the government

    • Cabinet is America’s 15 experts who report to the President


Executive branch president
Executive Branch: President

  • Commander in Chief of the military

  • Appoint ambassadors, Supreme Court justices, federal judges and any officials as provided for by the Congress

    • approval by the Senate

  • Plans a budget for America’s money

  • Give an annual State of the Union Address to Congress

  • Recommends legislation to Congress


Judicial branch
Judicial Branch

  • A Supreme Court and other courts as authorized by Congress

    • Appointed by thePresident, approved bythe Senate

      • Hold positions until they retire

    • The judges do not give their own personal opinion; they are experts on the constitution and must determine if a law is constitutional or legal


Elections
Elections

  • Electoral College

    • When Americans vote for the President, they are suggesting to the state’s electors who to pick

      • Electors are based on the number of members each state has in The House of Representatives plus The Senate

        • MN has 10 Electoral Votes, CA has 55 Electoral Votes, ND has 3


Checks balances
Checks & Balances

Key Terms:

  • Confirmations – The Senate gets to vote and approve most Presidential picks

  • Vetoing – rejecting bills that have passed

  • Overriding – overruling the veto

  • Impeach – to bring charges of serious wrongdoing to the President

    • Two Presidents have been impeached

      • Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton, neither were convicted by the Senate


Federalism
Federalism

  • This is the balance of power between the States and Federal government

    • Governors and Presidents have different powers


Amendments
Amendments

  • The Constitution can be changed

    • There are 27 Amendments or changes

      • 13th – ended slavery

      • 19th– women can vote

    • 3/4ths of the states need to vote yes to change the constitution



Steps for a bill to become a law
Steps for a bill to become a law

  • Someone suggests a bill (often the President)

  • Congress (House & Senate) debate the bill

    • The bill is often changed a bit in numerous committees

  • House has to approve the bill with 51% vote

  • Senate has to approve the bill with 51% vote

  • President can sign the bill into law, or not (veto)

    • Congress can vote to override bill into law anyway (66%) vote

  • Bill is now law

  • Supreme Court can decide if law is constitutional



Is our government perfect
Is Our Government Perfect

  • Our government is over 200 years old. Many nations have just created new governments

    • Does America’s Government need to change

      • How

      • Why

      • What would you suggest

        • why


Important decision
Important Decision

  • The founding fathers in Philadelphia in 1787 met to create a new government for America

    • Have you ever had to make a huge decision

      • When, why, how did you figure out what to do?


Who would you pick
Who would you pick

  • If you had to go on a month long road trip (when you are 16) which one friend would you pick to come with you

    • why


Private or public
Private or Public?

  • Our Gvt was created in private. If you were creating rules for your younger brother or sister in the house, should they have input into your new rules and get to listen to your rulemaking meeting with your parents?

    • Why, why not?


Represent
Represent!

  • MN gets 10 (SD gets 3) votes in Congress, New York gets 31, California 55 votes

    • Is this a good system for determining America’s laws

      • How would you change it

      • Is MN getting a fair opportunity in DC?


Natural born
Natural Born?

  • The Constitution requires the President to be born in America

    • Is this necessary?

      • Why

      • What is good and bad about this?