Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes

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Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes. The heart of many chefs in the kitchen. What Is Culinary Math?. The same as any other math

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### Unit 5: Culinary Math and Recipes

The heart of many chefs in the kitchen

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

What Is Culinary Math?
• The same as any other math
• Used in the culinary world to make databases and spreadsheets, calculate yield percentages, and figure menu prices, labor costs, business costs, and profit and loss statements
• Involves fractions, ratios, and decimals

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Whole Numbers
• Have a place value that allows us to indicate a large number
• Placed in specific sequence
• Ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.
• Used for subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Fractions
• Break something (whole numbers) into pieces
• Each piece is a part or a fraction of the whole
• The number on top (numerator) is the fraction
• The number on the bottom represents the whole (denominator)
• Used to measure ingredients
• Crucial in scaling recipes

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Calculations
• Common denominator
• Reducing fractions
• Common fraction
• Improper fraction
• Mixed numbers

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

• Common denominator
• Example: ½ + ⅓ = ?
• Multiply the values of numerator and denominator on one side of the equation by the denominator of the other: 1 × 2 = 2, 3 × 2 = 6
• Repeat the process using the original denominator
• 1 × 3 = 3
• 2 × 3 = 6
• Rewrite the equation, add the fractions, come up with the answer
• 2/6 + 3/6 = 5/6

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Multiplication
• Multiplying is a form of adding
• 1 × 1 = 1
• 2 × 3 = 6
• Common denominator is not needed for this operation
• Multiplying whole numbers must be converted into improper fractions
• After practice, this is very easy, as you will do it for every recipe

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Dividing
• Dividing is a form of subtraction
• Mixed numbers converted to improper fractions
• Reverse the numerator and denominator
• Or, invert the fraction
• Example ½ ÷ ¾ must be rewritten as ½ × 4/3 = 4/6

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Reducing Fractions
• The last frame showed an answer of 4/6
• Reducing that fraction would be accomplished by dividing by the largest whole number that divides evenly
• In this case it is 2 (4/6 ÷ 2 = ⅔)

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Ratios
• A fraction is a ratio
• Ratios are used to make work simpler
• Many are standard throughout the industry
• Vinaigrette: 3 parts oil, 1 part vinegar is the most common ratio for this dressing
• A fraction of ½ would be expressed as 1 part to 2 parts: 1-1 would be 50/50 or equal amounts
• 2/3 would be 2 parts to 3 parts
• Basic rice pilaf calls for 1 part rice, 2 parts hot stock, or ½ ratio
• Also, 4 parts to 6 parts can be reduced to 2 parts to 3 parts
• 1 part carrots, 1 part celery, 2 parts onion would be written as 1:1:2

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Decimals and Percents
• Numbers to the left of a decimal point are whole numbers
• Numbers to the right of the decimal point are parts of a whole number
• Numbers to the right are also called decimals and/or fractions
• To perform calculations, you must perform the operations of :
• Decimals to fractions
• Fractions to decimals

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Converting
• To change a fraction to a decimal:1/8 is 1 ÷ 8 = 0.125
• To change a decimal to a fraction:
• .125 × 1000 = 125
• 125/1000
• (125÷ 125)/(1000÷ 125) = 1/8

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Percentages
• A percent (%) is part of 100
• 100 percent means all of something
• A percent less than 100 means how many out of that whole
• 35 percent is 35 parts of 100 parts

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

To Calculate a Percent
• Begin with a decimal
• Move the point two places to the right
• Add the word or symbol for percent (%)
• To use this to calculate, turn it back to a decimal; divide the % by 100 or move the decimal point two places to the left
• Drop the word and/or symbol

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Calculating Food CostApplying Math in the Kitchen
• Recipes is most obvious use
• You will either increase or decrease recipes
• Involves multiplication or division
• May involve fractions, decimals, ratios
• Goal is to generate a profit

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Factors to Account for
• Salaries, rent, utilities, advertising, insurance
• Controlling these costs is crucial
• Cost of specific recipes includes every element needed to serve the dish
• Must have knowledge to convert from one measurement to another

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Yield Percent
• This is commonly a pitfall that is unaccounted for
• It is “how much of an ingredient is available to use” after trimming, cooking, carving
• The lower the yield percent, the more the food actually costs to serve your guests
• “Relatively inexpensive” can be deceiving after preparation

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Food Cost Percentage
• Most kitchens have established food cost percentages
• Total food cost is all the food and drink purchased to produce all the menu items
• Calculated to a predetermined schedule
• Useful as a monitoring tool for the kitchen
• Improves bottom line and efficiency

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.

Food Cost Calculation Formula
• Probably one of the most important formulas in the industry
• Divide the total cost of food by the total sales
• \$50,000 ÷ \$200,000 = 25% food cost

American Culinary Federation: Culinary Fundamentals.