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Civil War (1861-62). key Civil War battles. First Bull Run (First Manassas) (July 1861) Seven Days Campaign (June-July 1862) Confederates gain initiative (Lee, Jackson) Union stops conciliating civilians Lincoln decides to abolish slavery. key Civil War battles.

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key civil war battles
key Civil War battles
  • First Bull Run (First Manassas) (July 1861)
  • Seven Days Campaign (June-July 1862)
    • Confederates gain initiative (Lee, Jackson)
    • Union stops conciliating civilians
    • Lincoln decides to abolish slavery
key civil war battles1
key Civil War battles
  • First Bull Run (First Manassas) (July 1861)
  • Seven Days Campaign (June-July 1862)
  • Antietam and Perryville (September 1862)
    • Union regains initiative (Grant)
    • Lincoln announces Emancipation Proclamation
civil war 1861 621
Civil War 1861-62
  • from union war to abolition war
  • from conciliation to pragmatism
  • modernizing of armies (more so for Union)
  • modernizing of government (Union only)
further reading
further reading
  • The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (1863-1901)
  • Battles and Leaders of the Civil War (1887-88)
  • Bell Irvin Wiley, The Life of Johnny Reb (1943)
  • Bell Irvin Wiley, The Life of Billy Yank (1952)
  • James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom (1988)
the sea islands during the civil war
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Nov 1861: Union seizes some of the Sea Islands
the sea islands during the civil war1
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Nov 1861: Union seizes some of the Sea Islands
  • Jan 1862: Pierce is sent to investigate
the sea islands during the civil war2
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Nov 1861: Union seizes some of the Sea Islands
  • Jan 1862: Pierce is sent to investigate
  • Feb 1862: freedmen’s aid societies form in New York and Boston (the “Gideonites”)
goals of the gideonites
goals of the Gideonites
  • provide aid to the needy
goals of the gideonites1
goals of the Gideonites
  • provide aid to the needy
    • aid should entail self-help
    • aid should be provided by volunteers
goals of the gideonites2
goals of the Gideonites
  • provide aid to the needy
    • aid should entail self-help
    • aid should be provided by volunteers
  • prepare the slaves for freedom
goals of the gideonites3
goals of the Gideonites
  • provide aid to the needy
    • aid should entail self-help
    • aid should be provided by volunteers
  • prepare the slaves for freedom
    • training for living (bourgeois capitalism)
    • training for living (domesticity)
goals of the gideonites4
goals of the Gideonites
  • provide aid to the needy
    • aid should entail self-help
    • aid should be provided by volunteers
  • prepare the slaves for freedom
    • training for living (bourgeois capitalism)
    • training for living (domesticity)
    • without endangering the cotton crop
the sea islands during the civil war3
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Nov 1861: Union seizes some of the Sea Islands
  • Jan 1862: Pierce is sent to investigate
  • Feb 1862: freedmen’s aid societies form in New York and Boston (the “Gideonites”)
  • Mar 1862: first Gideonites arrive
the sea islands during the civil war4
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Nov 1861: Union seizes some of the Sea Islands
  • Jan 1862: Pierce is sent to investigate
  • Feb 1862: freedmen’s aid societies form in New York and Boston (the “Gideonites”)
  • Mar 1862: first Gideonites arrive
  • April 1862: Towne arrives
the sea islands during the civil war5
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Nov 1861: Union seizes some of the Sea Islands
  • Jan 1862: Pierce is sent to investigate
  • Feb 1862: freedmen’s aid societies form in New York and Boston (the “Gideonites”)
  • Mar 1862: first Gideonites arrive
  • April 1862: Towne arrives
  • May 1862: first draft (companies disbanded)
the sea islands during the civil war6
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Nov 1861: Union seizes some of the Sea Islands
  • Jan 1862: Pierce is sent to investigate
  • Feb 1862: freedmen’s aid societies form in New York and Boston (the “Gideonites”)
  • Mar 1862: first Gideonites arrive
  • April 1862: Towne arrives
  • May 1862: first draft (companies disbanded)
  • May 1862: Smalls escapes to Union lines
the sea islands during the civil war7
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Nov 1862: Higginson takes command of the 1st SC Vols
slide27

Our masters have live under the flag, they got there wealth under it, and every thing beautiful for their children. Under it they have grind us up, and put us in there pocket for money. But the first minute they think that old flag mean freedom for we colored people, they pull it right down, and run up the rag of their own.

-corporal in the 1st SC Vols, quoted by Higginson

the sea islands during the civil war8
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Oct 1862: Forten arrives
  • Nov 1862: Higginson takes command of the 1st SC Vols
the sea islands during the civil war9
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Oct 1862: Forten arrives
  • Nov 1862: Higginson takes command of the 1st SC Vols
  • Jan 1863: abolition of slavery
the sea islands during the civil war10
the Sea Islands during the Civil War
  • Oct 1862: Forten arrives
  • Nov 1862: Higginson takes command of the 1st SC Vols
  • Jan 1863: abolition of slavery
  • Nov 1863: Botume arrives
slide33

I must first know something of their dialect in order that we might understand each other.

-excerpt from Elizabeth Hyde Botume’s memoir

slide34

Others of the colored people joined in; some whites on the platform began, but I motioned them to silence. I never saw anything so electric; it made all other words cheap; it seemed the choked voice of a race at last unloosed.

-excerpt from Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment (1870)