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Macromolecules. L ipids, proteins, and nucleic acids . Lipids!. Lipids are commonly called fats and oils. They are mostly made up of Carbon and Hydrogen, with less Oxygen than carbohydrates have. They are linked by non-polar covalent bonds

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macromolecules

Macromolecules

Lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

lipids1

Lipids are commonly called fats and oils.

  • They are mostly made up of Carbon and Hydrogen, with less Oxygen than carbohydrates have.
  • They are linked by non-polar covalent bonds
  • Lipids are hydrophobic, meaning they don’t mix with water
Lipids
slide4
Fats are called Triglycerides
  • Fat is a large lipid made from smaller molecules of glycerol and fatty acids.
  • Made of 3 fatty acids bonded to 1 glycerol molecule
fats
slide5
Saturated Fat

Unsaturated Fat

  • Have lots of hydrogen atoms
  • Have only single bonds between carbons
  • Are made from animals
  • Are solid at room temperature
  • Include butter and lard
  • Are very unhealthy
  • Have less hydrogen atoms
  • Have double bonds between carbons
  • Are made from plants
  • Are liquid at room temp
  • Include olive oil, vegetable oil
  • Are healthier
Fats
functions of lipids

Lipids are used for energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings.

  • They are also the major components in cell membranes.
Functions of Lipids
phospholipids

Different from fatty acids because they…

  • Contain the element phosphorous
  • Only 2 fatty acids instead of three
Phospholipids

They are a major component of cell membranes.

proteins

Proteins are large, complex polymers composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur.

  • Proteins make up our hair, teeth, and nails.
  • Enzymes, which speed up chemical reactions, are proteins.
Proteins
protein function
Protein Function
  • 3 dimensional structure

Structure

Hair, spiders web, tendon and ligament fibers

Movement

Muscular movement

Storage

egg white

Defense

Antibodies

Transport

Hemoglobin, carries oxygen from your blood to your lungs and other parts of your body

Signal

Hormones

of all of life s molecules

Proteins are the most diverse molecule in structure and function.

Proteins are made of amino acids.

There are 20 amino acids.

Of all of life’s molecules…….
amino acids
Amino Acids
  • They all have central carbon attached to:
  • an amino group and
  • A Carbonyl group and
  • An R group is the variable part of the amino acid
  • General structure:
peptide bonds
Peptide Bonds

Cells link amino acids together by dehydration synthesis

A water molecule is removed

Carbon and Nitrogen form a bond

The covalent linkage is a peptide bond

The product is called a dipeptide – 2 amino acids

Additional amino acids can be added by using dehydration synthesis

This creates polypeptides

protein s specific shape

The shape of a protein determines its function

  • Nearly all proteins must recognize and bind to some other molecule in order to function.
Protein’s Specific Shape..
protein s specific shape1

Lysozyme can destroy bacteria cells

  • It must first bind to specific molecules on the bacteria cell surface
  • Its shape allows it to recognize and bind to a specific target
  • The target fits in the groove you see on the right

groove

Protein’s Specific Shape..
denaturation

The protein’s dependence on shape becomes clear when the protein is altered in some way

  • In a process called denaturation the polypeptides become unraveled, losing it’s shape and therefore it’s function
  • When heating an egg… the protein goes from clear and slimey to white and solid
  • Once the protien is heated they become denatured and could no longer help to sustain a bird embryo
  • Salt, temperature, and pH level can also denature proteins
Denaturation
protein structure1

The Secondary Structure of a protein is…

polypeptide coiling or folding produced by hydrogen bonding

  • The coiling produces a alpha helix, or a beta pleatedsheet
Protein Structure
protein structure3

The quaternary structure of proteins is the relationship among multiple polypeptides of a protein

  • Bonding interactions between the subunits of the protein
Protein Structure
nucleic acids

A nucleic acid is a complex macromolecule that stores cellular information in the form of a code.

  • DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.
Nucleic Acids
nucleotides

Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides.

  • There are 4 nucleotides:
  • Adenine = Thymine
  • Cytosine = Guanine
  • Nucleotides are made up of 3 things:
    • A sugar
    • A phosphate group
    • A nitrogenous base
Nucleotides