Terms • Sex • A biological construct having to do with measurable biological differences between men and women • It is the social meaning given to this characteristic that results in inequality • Gender • A social construct • Meaning varies with the culture and society • Social characteristic and traits that define femininity and masculinity for a particular culture
Sex and Gender Inequality • Race and Sex are ascribed characteristics • Races and Sex are hierarchically arranged and influences opportunities, life chances, and resources • Race and Sex are a status • Binary categories establishing differences which results in inequality
SO WHAT IS SEXUALITY? • Sexuality or Sexual Orientation • The manner in which people experience sexual pleasure or achieve sexual arousal. • In U.S culture there is a connection between sex, gender and sexuality.
Related Terms • Patriarchy • The dominance of men over women. • In virtually all societies women are subordinate to men. • No historical or anthropological evidence of a society where women dominated men. • Sexism • A belief in the biological grounding of social and behavior differences between men and women. The notion that men are inherently superior to women.
Response to Sexism and Patriarchy • Feminism • A set of beliefs and actions that center on assuring equality between men and women. • The notion that biology is not destiny.
Feminism • Feminist Ideology • Not a monolithic view about how to establish, define or realize gender equality. • Commonality among different views • A claim that women are a special category of people based on biological and cultural experiences. • The belief that only women should define what is feminism. • Recognition of and dissatisfaction with the fact that men create rules and that women must live by. • The belief that changing the subordinate status of women is possible and essential.
HISTORY OF SEX INEQUALITY • NO RIGHT TO VOTE • NO RIGHT TO OWN PROPERTY • NO RIGHTS TO CHILDREN • RESTRICTED EMPLOYMENT • RESTRICTED EDUCATIONAL OPPROTUNITIES
WHAT ABOUT TODAY? • WORKFORCE • Greater participation by women • Sex segregation • Sex typing • Earnings inequality • less pay for same work • Comparable worth – the proposition that men and women should be paid the same for jobs of equal or comparable worth. • Sexual harassment • Sex discrimination • Glass ceiling
WELL WHAT ABOUT EDUCATION? • SCHOOLS SHORTCHANGE GIRLS • Girls more likely to be ignored • Less likely to be corrected or challenged • Counseled into stereotypical subjects and careers • Segregation by sex into activities • Lack of role models and mentoring • PROBLEMS OF HARASSMENT AND VIOLENCE
WHAT ABOUT EVERYDAY LIFE • WOMEN SUBJECTED TO MICROINEQUALITIES Ways in which women are Singled out, or overlooked, ignored, or otherwise discounted on the basis of their gender. • LANGUAGE • COMMUNICATION • MEDIA • STEREOTYPES • MYTHS • CHIVALRY
MYTH OF THE GENERIC • MANKIND • Every MAN For HIMSELF • CHILDREN need a good breakfast to start the day. HIS breakfast should consist of fruit, grain and milk for balanced nutrition.
Who is the surgeon to the boy? RIDDLE A boy and his father went on a fishing trip. On the way home, they had a terrible car accident. The father was killed immediately. The young boy, still alive and quite critical was rushed to a hospital. There he was immediately taken into surgery, where the surgeon on call said: I can’t operate on this boy. He is my son.
DOCTOR LAWYER JUDGE CHEF POLICE ASTRONAUT TEACHER NURSE SECRETARY COOK RECEPTIONIST BABY SITTER TITLES AND OCCUPATIONS
LADY LAWYER POETESS ACTRESS LADY DOCTOR GENTLEMAN LAWYER POET ACTOR DOCTOR Adding Suffixes And Modifiers To Titles
Master Mr. Sir Dr. Professor Mistress Miss? Mrs? Madame ???? ????? Titles
Derogatory Language • There are over 1000 words for a women who is promiscuous. • There are only 20 such words for promiscuous men. How many can you think of?
bawd, ||callet, call girl, camp follower, cocotte, ||cruiser, drab, fille de joie, harlot, ||hooker, hustler, ||joy girl, meretrix, moll, nightwalker, party girl, pom-pom girl, poule, quean,sporting girl, street girl, streetwalker, ||tomato, whore; DOXY, HARLOT 1, WANTON Related Word bar girl, B-girl, pickup; V-girl, victory girl; cocodette Idioms lady of pleasure, lady of the evening, woman of the street (or streets), woman of the town Words for prostitute How many of these words fit men?
Spinster madame mistress Mary is the mistress of her domain. Mary is John’s mistress. Sissy -- sister an effeminate man or boy; also : a timid or cowardly person Bachelor sir master John is the master of his domain. John is Mary’s master. Female Words Take on Derogatory Meaning Over Time
AND THEN THERE IS... • PORNOGRAPPHY • VIOLENCE • RAPE • ASSAULT • DOMESTIC ABUSE
THEORIES OF GENDER INEQUALITY • Cultural • Ortner • Social-Structural • Functionalist • Parsons • Functional necessity • Contribute to social order • Contribute to completion of essential task in the family. • Women perform expressive functions • Men perform instrumental functions • Ecological • Sanday’s Theory of Male Dominance • Capitalist/Patriarchal • MARXIST/CONFLICT • VOGEL • ENGELS
Cultural Theory • Ortner Sex inequality results of beliefs associated with women’s roles • Women’s • reproductive role = closer to nature • Mediate nature, private domain • Men • creative through external factors = technology and symbols • Create culture, public domain
Sanday’s Theory of Male Dominance Male dominance result of the environment • Type of environment • Conducive to male dominance • High risk/stress (hunting large animals, scarce resources, high danger, uncertainty) • Outer orientation pursue power in the outer world through aggression, strength, and control of environment • Type of Environment Conducive to Sex Equality • Low risk/stress (abundant food, low conflict/danger, gatherers) • Inner orientation means that nature is viewed as friendly and women seen as having an affinity to nature (women produce like nature produces)
Sanday’s Theory of Male Dominance • Cultural Systems • Supreme being or animal power • Supreme being imbued with masculine characteristics • Men hunt and separate from family and children • Earth or Nature as supreme power • Feminine origin myths have feminine qualities • Earth provides life so men are closer to familyies and children • Division of Labor • Strict division of labor favors men (public vs. private domains) • Subsistence and simpler economy and technology favors women • More rely on women for survival less inequality
ENGELS’ THEORY Sex inequality results from material conditions. • PRIVATE PROPERTY • Preclass society • Production for use • Work for the group and produce for the group • Sex differentiated but not unequal • Domestication of animal and plants • Men earliest owners of property • Agricultural Society • Production for exchange (surplus) • women valued for ability to produce heirs • women understand struggle for surplus and concern is family survival • NUCLEAR FAMILY RESULTS IN MALE DOMINATION • MALE DOMINATION OF FEMALES IS PRECURSOR OF CLASS DOMINATION
VOGEL’S REPRODUCTION THEORY Revision of Engel’s theory and Marx’s idea of necessary labor • USE OF MARXIST CONCEPTS • Labor power • Production • Reproduction • THEORY OF NECESSARY LABOR • Focus on reproductive capacity of women • Social aspects of necessary labor • Paid • Public • Men • Domestic labor • Unpaid • Private • Women
VOGEL continued • Contradiction in capitalism • need women’s unpaid domestic labor • want to make a profit off of women • men want comfort • men do not want to compete with women for wages women’s labor encourages participation in domestic labor RESULT
VOGEL continued • Capitalism creates division between domestic and social labor • Capitalism makes division of labor seem natural • Men contribute wages for subsistence of household Dependence of women RESULT
Patriarchy • Vogel • Male supremacy is based on men as laborers and wage earner • Ideology of male supremacy used to justify and legitimate not to create inequality. • Sex division of labor within the family is the source of women’s troubles (women dependent on men during childbearing) • Feminist View on Role of Patriarchy • Sex inequality precedes capitalism • System of sexual hierarchical relation exists and has always existed in all societies • No matriarchal society where women dominated men • Men used domination outside the home to dominate in the home • Maintain of patriarchy over generations is to men's advantage • Male control of institutions shape society and its culture to maintain male dominance • Patriarch and capitalism work together and domestic division of labor is the lynchpin