Sphaeralcea a difficult genus with weak distinctions
Download
1 / 36

- PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 466 Views
  • Uploaded on

SPHAERALCEA : A DIFFICULT GENUS WITH WEAK DISTINCTIONS ~40 species worldwide ● 15 species in Intermountain Region Need to add “S.” before names; ensure that symbols come across; Italicize scientific names; consistently omit authors Species in Utah 4 species fairly widespread S. coccinea

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '' - adamdaniel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Sphaeralcea a difficult genus with weak distinctions l.jpg
SPHAERALCEA:A DIFFICULT GENUS WITH WEAK DISTINCTIONS


40 species worldwide 15 species in intermountain region l.jpg
~40 species worldwide ●15 species in Intermountain Region


Slide3 l.jpg

Need to add “S.” before names;

ensure that symbols come across;

Italicize scientific names;

consistently omit authors


Species in utah l.jpg
Species in Utah

  • 4 species fairly widespread

    • S. coccinea

    • S. grossulariifolia

    • S. munroana

    • S. parvifolia

  • 4 species restricted to a single county

  • 6 species endemic to Utah


Difficulties l.jpg

Weak character differences between species

Polyploidy and hybridization

Difficulties


Generic characteristics l.jpg
Generic Characteristics

  • Herbs or shrubs

  • Stellate pubescence

  • Leaves entire to deeply dissected or compound

  • Inflorescence of solitary flowers, racemes, thyrsoid, panicles

  • Flowers red-orange, lavender, yellow, or rarely white

  • Fruit a schizocarp with several to many mericarps


Species identification 1 l.jpg
Species Identification (1)

  • Leaves

    • Shallowly or deeply lobed

    • Length to width ratio

  • Pubescence

    • Density

    • Coarse or delicate

    • Rays slender or not

    • 2 or 3-dimensional


Species identification 2 l.jpg
Species identification (2)

  • Inflorescence

    • Thyrsoid

    • Paniculate

    • Racemose

    • Number of flowers/node

  • Calyx

    • Length

    • Lobe length

    • Overall shape

  • Flowers

    • Petal length


Leaves l.jpg

Not or shallowly lobed

Deeply lobed

Leaves


Inflorescence l.jpg

Thyrsoid/ paniculate: flowers attached in a cluster at the nodes

Racemose: 1(2,3) flowers/node, all attached directly to main stem

Inflorescence


4 commonly confused species l.jpg
4 commonly confused species nodes

  • S. coccinea

  • S. grossulariifolia

  • S. munroana

  • S. parvifolia


Key to common species l.jpg

Leaves entire or shallowly lobed nodes

Leaves densely pubescent, relatively thick, margins weakly crenulate - S. parvifolia

Leaves moderately pubescent (greenish), relatively thin, margins coarsely and irregularly crenulate

- S. munroana

Leaves deeply lobed

Inflorescence thyrsoid or paniculate with 2+ flowers/node; mericarps higher than wide

– S. grossulariifolia

Inflorescence racemose with 1(2,3) flowers/node; mericarps nearly as high as wide – S. coccinea

Key to Common Species


Sphaeralcea parviflora l.jpg
Sphaeralcea parviflora nodes

  • Perennial from a thick crown or woody, short branched caudex; typically with multiple, erect to ascending stems and usually short-branched.

  • Herbage gray-green, moderately to densely pubescent; stellate hairs in multiple planes.


Slide15 l.jpg

Leaves nodes cauline; petiole 1.5-4(6)cm; blade thickish, about as wide as long, deltate-ovate to suborbicular, sometimes shallowly 3-5 lobed, palmately veined, veins prominent beneath, slightly channeled above.


Slide16 l.jpg

Inflorescence nodes relatively narrowly thyrsoid-glomerate; pedicels 2-10 mm, ascending; calyx 5-8(9) mm, lobes ovate, obtuse, densely pubescent; petals 2-10 mm, orange-red; staminal column 3-5.5 mm, glabrous, anthers apical; styles capitate.


Slide17 l.jpg

Schizocarp nodes of about 10 mericarps forming a ring 4-5.5 mm in diameter; mericarps 2-seeded, 2.8-4 mm high, 2-2.3 mm wide, pubescent on back and margins. Seeds 1.7-2 mm long, reniform, dark brown to black, patches of minute hairs.


Slide18 l.jpg

Washes, roadsides, and among greasewood, blackbrush, sagebrush and juniper communities. 750-2450 m. Southern and lower elevation counterpart to S. munroana. The confluent leaf blades seem to be diagnostic for most specimens of this species.


Sphaeralcea munroana l.jpg
Sphaeralcea munroana sagebrush and juniper communities. 750-2450 m.

  • Perennial from a thick crown or woody, short branched caudex; typically multiple erect to ascending stems, unbranched or often short-branched.

  • Herbage green, moderately to sparsely pubescent; stellate rays in three planes.


Slide21 l.jpg

Leaves sagebrush and juniper communities. 750-2450 m. cauline; petiole 1.5-4.5(5.5)cm; blade thin, about as wide as long, deltate-ovate, often moderately 3-5 lobed, lobes rounded or obtuse, palmately veined, veins not as prominent beneath.


Slide22 l.jpg

Inflorescence sagebrush and juniper communities. 750-2450 m. relatively narrowly thyrsoid-glomerate; pedicels stout, shorter than the calyx; calyx 4.7-7 mm, lobes ovate, acute, densely pubescent; petals 8-14(18) mm, grenadine; staminal column 4.5-5.7 mm, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, anthers apical; styles capitate.


Slide23 l.jpg

Schizocarps sagebrush and juniper communities. 750-2450 m. of 10-12 mericarps forming a ring 4-5.2 mm in diameter; mericarps 1(2)-seeded, 2-3 mm high, 1.8-2.5 mm wide, apically pubescent on back and margins. Seeds about 1.7 mm long, reniform, dark brown, minutely pubescent.


Slide24 l.jpg

Deserts, valleys and foothills among rabbitbrush and sagebrush communities. 640-2400 m. Difficult to distinguish from S. parviflora. S. munroana var. subrhomboidea has 3 distinct lobes reaching almost halfway to the base is found along the Wasatch and Oquirrh Mts. and North into Southern Idaho.


Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia l.jpg
Sphaeralcea grossulariifolia sagebrush communities. 640-2400 m.

  • Perennial from a thick crown or woody, short branched caudex; typically multiple erect to ascending stems, unbranched or often short-branched.

  • Herbage greenish, moderately to sparsely pubescent on leaves, densely pubescent on stems; stellate hairs in three planes, often with appressed rays on stems.


Slide27 l.jpg

Leaves sagebrush communities. 640-2400 m. cauline; petiole (1)1.5-5(7)cm; blade more or less thin, about as wide as long, deltate or broadly ovate in outline, 3-5 lobed sometime appearing 3-foliate, lobes with deeply cleft lateral lobes, lateral lobes asymmetrical, >10 mm wide, palmately veined, veins prominent beneath.


Slide28 l.jpg

Inflorescence sagebrush communities. 640-2400 m. relatively narrowly thyrsoid-glomerate; pedicels stout, shorter than the calyx, sometimes longer at the lower nodes; calyx 5-11 mm, lobes ovate to lanceolate, acute; petals 11-22 mm, grenadine; staminal column 4-6 mm, glabrous or stellate pubescent, anthers apical; styles capitate.


Slide29 l.jpg

Schizocarp sagebrush communities. 640-2400 m. of 10-12 mericarps forming a ring 4.5-6.5 mm in diameter; mericarps 1(2)-seeded, 2.5-3.5(4) mm high, 2-3 mm wide, pubescent on dorsal and apical surfaces. Seeds about 2 mm long, reniform, dark brown, minutely puberulent.


Slide30 l.jpg

Deserts, valleys and foothills among blackbrush, greasewood, shadscale, rabbitbrush and sagebrush vegetation. 800-2300 m. A complex species with great variation in the dissection of the leaves. Much of the variation likely comes from introgression with other species. It appears to be less common in the Southern portions of its range.


Sphaeralcea coccinea l.jpg
Sphaeralcea coccinea shadscale, rabbitbrush and sagebrush vegetation. 800-2300 m. A complex species with great variation in the dissection of the leaves. Much of the variation likely comes from introgression with other species. It appears to be less common in the Southern portions of its range.

  • Perennial from a woody, branched caudex, surmounting deep-seated running roots, often forming colonies; stems several to many, decumbent or ascending, unbranched or with short, often poorly developed branch.

  • Herbage grayish-green, stellately pubescent, rays angled away from the surface.


Slide33 l.jpg

Leaves shadscale, rabbitbrush and sagebrush vegetation. 800-2300 m. A complex species with great variation in the dissection of the leaves. Much of the variation likely comes from introgression with other species. It appears to be less common in the Southern portions of its range. cauline; petiole 1-2.5(4)cm; blade, wider than long, broadly ovate to orbicular in outline, pedately 3-foliate, lower lateral lobes deeply divided, lower segments imparting a 5-foliate appearance, mid lobe ternate to pinnatifid.


Slide34 l.jpg

Inflorescence shadscale, rabbitbrush and sagebrush vegetation. 800-2300 m. A complex species with great variation in the dissection of the leaves. Much of the variation likely comes from introgression with other species. It appears to be less common in the Southern portions of its range.: lower flowers solitary in leaf axils and a bracteate raceme above with 1 flower per node, barely elongating in fruit; pedicels 2-10 mm, relatively stout at maturity, ascending; calyx (5)6-9.5 mm, lobes triangular-ovate, acute; petals 10-16(20) mm, deep orange to reddish-orange; staminal column 3-5 mm, sparsely stellate pubescent, anthers apical; styles capitate.


Slide35 l.jpg

Schizocarp shadscale, rabbitbrush and sagebrush vegetation. 800-2300 m. A complex species with great variation in the dissection of the leaves. Much of the variation likely comes from introgression with other species. It appears to be less common in the Southern portions of its range. of 10-14 mericarps forming a ring 4.8-6.7 mm in diameter; mericarps 1(2)-seeded, 2-2.6(4) mm high, 2.4-3 mm wide, rounded dorsally, densely pubescent on dorsally. Seeds about 2 mm long, reniform, dark brown to black.


Slide36 l.jpg

Sandy and gravelly soils in greasewood, shadscale, sagebrush, pinyon-juniper and Gambel oak communities. (1000)1375-2750 m. The somewhat smaller stature, branched caudex with running roots, dense pubescence on the leaves, and simple raceme inflorescence help distinguish this species from S. grossulariifolia.


ad