Floriculture Elements of Design Shapes and Styles
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Professional arrangements do not “just happen.” • There is always a “plan” for the design, and this concept is evident in the final shape of the arrangement. • Without a plan, the finished product is an “uncontrollable happening,” not a controlled, profitable design.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • These are the basic arrangement shapes that professional floral artists should be qualified to create. • We are presenting the primary design shapes that are basic to professional floral designing. • Once these basic forms have been mastered, modifications and creative license can be taken to create the interpretive, more contemporary designs.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Symmetrical • In creating a symmetrical design, equal visual balance must be apparent on either side of a central axis. • An imaginary perpendicular line running vertically through the center of the design should visually divide a symmetrical arrangement into two equally balanced parts.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Round • When all the flowers and greens fall within the circumference of a circle, the shape of the design is identified as “round.”
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Asymmetrical • In an asymmetrical design, the central axis moves to the right or left of center. • An asymmetrical arrangement falls comfortable within the boundaries of a right angle. • Technically, the height of the design meets with the length to form a right angle.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Fan • In creating a fan design, the flowers are placed to form a semicircular shape, with all stems flowing into a central focal axis.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Oval • A full oval arrangement is often difficult to design. • The typical oval arrangement is made with a primary flower to define the oval shape and other flowers and greens used as filler.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Vertical • A very distinctive design shape, the vertical arrangement emphasizes height. • Technically, all of the materials used should be contained within the width of the container.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Horizontal • The horizontal line creates a pleasing arc shape, therefore it is important to keep the arrangement low and ideally quite narrow to reinforce the horizontal impact of the composition.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Rectangular • Definitely a contemporary arrangement shape, the rectangular design is properly constructed when all flowers and materials pass within the line of an imaginary rectangle.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Hogarth Curve • A taller, cylindrical container is deal for the hogarth curve as it displays the full beauty of this interesting arrangement shape. • One important technique in creating the hogarth is to extend the arrangement foam above the container, so flowers can be inserted properly for the bottom part of the “s” curve.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Parallel Systems • A parallel systems arrangement is created by using two or more vertical designs in the same composition. • Technically, there should be “air” between each parallel grouping of flowers. • However, in interpreting this design sometimes the vertical groupings blend together.
BASIC ARRANGEMENT SHAPES • Crescent • The crescent is one of the most difficult shapes to construct because it requires that flowers and greens are carefully shaped to form the crescent curve. • Sometimes, materials can be shaped naturally into a crescent line, other time wiring is necessary.
HIGH STYLE DESIGNS • High style designs do not represent the majority of arrangements designed by typical flower shops throughout the country. • However, it is vital for the professional floral designer to know how to create high style designs. • If high style compositions are not shown in your shop, your customers will never be exposed to them and will never buy them. • However, when high style designs are shown, they sell.
CLASSIFICATION OF DESIGN COMPONENTS BY USE: • Mass: • Begin with a mass flower. • Examples: rose, carnation, mum, salol, galax, boxwood, fern. • Line: • Directional movement to the flower - usually skinny - line materials are usually grouped. • Examples: liatris, cattails, gladiolus, eucalyptus, flax, twigs, bear grass.
CLASSIFICATION OF DESIGN COMPONENTS BY USE: • Filler: • Usually used for texture and scale contrast. • Examples: gypsophila, statice, wax flower plumosus, asparagus, tree fern. • Form: • Materials that have very unique shape, usually used in focal area and in small amounts. • Examples: bird of paradise, protea, anthunum, variegated croton, split-leaf philodendron.
Color Harmony Shape/form Size/scale Texture Seasonal availability Cost Stem length Vase life Fragrance Meaning, psychological associations Specific design problems or handling procedures CONSIDERATIONS IN FLOWER/ FOLIAGE SELECTION FOR DESIGNS:
FLORAL DESIGN CONTAINERS • A container is anything that will hold plant materials, plus water if fresh flowers are used. • There are several different shapes and materials used to make them.
FLORAL DESIGN CONTAINERS • The following lists should give you a good concept of the basic types. • Low Bowl: May be round (berry bowl), oval, square, rectangular, or free form; with straight, flaring, or cupped sides. • Compote: A shallow, round, or square bowl on a pedestal. It may be either low or tall depending on length of stem.
FLORAL DESIGN CONTAINERS • Vases: (Bud vases or rose vases). May be square, rectangular (pillow vases), or cylindrical; having straight or curved sides, with or without stems or bases; narrow necked or wide mouthed. • Baskets: Varies greatly in both design and materials, quite often wicker. • Trays: Has many shapes and sizes, is always flat without a rim.
FLORAL DESIGN CONTAINERS • Brandy snifters: A footed vase, having a wide base and tapering off at the mouth. • Rose bowl: Varies in size, is round in shape without a base, with or without a lid. • Novelties: Such containers as heads, animals, figurines, etc.
FLORAL DESIGN CONTAINERS • Certain materials used in making containers require a liner for them to hold water. They are: • Silver • Copper • Brass • Bronze • Wood • Wicker • Marble
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • An accessory is any object added to, or included in the design. • They should not take attention away from the arrangement itself. • Containers are not accessories, but figurines, container lids, sea accessories. • Accessories should be used only if they improve the design, are needed to interpret a theme or convey a feeling. • Unless the accessory definitely improves the design and looks as though its use had been planned, it should be left out.
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • Successful use of one or more accessories requires careful planning and depends on several things: • It must add something to the design. • It must look as though you had planned to use it--not added it as an afterthought or because it was pretty.
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • When the arrangement is finished and the accessory is in place, ask yourself if it really helps. • If it doesn’t, take it out, even though you had included it in your original plan. • It must not only add to the design, it must have a definite purpose--to help the balance, add to the artistic effect, or to carry out a theme. • It must be appropriate to the plant materials used. You would not use a bear with a bowl of roses, a frog in a Christmas scene, a ship on a piece of driftwood, or a beautiful antique with a modern design.
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • The accessory must have a planned relationship in: • Size. It must not be so large that it demands all attention, not so small that it seems lost. • Shape. It must fit in with the shape of the arrangement. • Color. It should repeat or pick up one or more colors of the plant materials or the container.
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • Texture. It, too, must be in good relationship with the plant materials and the design. A bright polished accessory with a driftwood container would be contradictory, but would be right with elegant silver or porcelain.
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • Placement of the accessory is of great importance. • It must always be kept within the boundary lines of the entire composition and not look as though it were walking out of the picture. • It can be used as weight to improve the balance or stability, or it can be used to replace or continue a main line. • Placed near the front, it has a greater eye appeal; placed toward the back, it will add a feeling of depth. • It must never stop and hold the eye to long.
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • It is important that the lines of the accessory be will related to the lines of the arrangement. • A tall or standing figurine can be used instead of a piece of plant material to establish or continue a line, and should be used in the same manner as you would use flowers, foliages, or branches. • A tall figurine is dominant and plant materials might well be used to outline it, or be clustered at its base.
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • A seated figurine can be used to form a focal point or used on one side or the other to complete the balance. • Structurally, it lacks the dominance of the tall one but it can add interest if used to fill a space or to continue a line. • Horizontal accessories can be effective because they, like the vertical ones, can determine the lines of the arrangement and become an important part of the design.
CHOOSING AND USING ACCESSORIES • A horizontal accessory can be used dramatically, in combination with vertical plant material, to form a triangle. • Curved or rounded accessories should be used in a design that repeats their lines to give a rhythmic effect. • Long curved or arched figures are most interesting, for they combine the strength of the vertical with the grace and beauty of the curving lines.