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Elements of Design. Remember you earn an art credit for this class. WHAT ARE THE ELEMENTS OF DESIGN. Line Color Shape Texture Space Value Form. Line. Used to define shape, contours, and outlines Suggests mass and volume Can be a continuous mark, or implied by edges of shapes and forms.

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elements of design

Elements of Design

Remember you earn an art credit for this class

what are the elements of design
  • Line
  • Color
  • Shape
  • Texture
  • Space
  • Value
  • Form
  • Used to define shape, contours, and outlines
  • Suggests mass and volume
  • Can be a continuous mark, or implied by edges of shapes and forms
characteristics of lines
Characteristics of lines
  • Width
    • Thick, thin, tapering, uneven
  • Length
    • Long, short, continuous, broken
  • Direction
    • Horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curving, perpendicular, oblique, parallel, radial, zigzag
  • Focus
    • Sharp, blurry, fuzzy, choppy
  • Feeling
    • Sharp, jagged, graceful, smooth
types of line
Types of line:
  • Outlines
  • Contour lines
  • Gesture lines
  • Sketch lines
  • Calligraphic lines
  • Implied line
  • Lines made by the edge of an object or its silhouette
contour lines
Contour lines
  • Lines that describe the shape of an object and the interior detail
gesture lines
Gesture lines
  • Lines that are energetic and catch the movement and gestures of an active figure
sketch lines
Sketch lines
  • Lines that capture the appearance of an object or impression of a place
calligraphic lines
Calligraphic lines
  • Greek word meaning “beautiful writing”.
  • Precise elegant handwriting or lettering done by hand
  • Artwork that has flowing lines like an elegant handwriting
implied line
Implied line
  • Lines that are not actually drawn but created by a group of objects seen from a distance.
  • The direction an object is pointing to, or the direction a person is looking at
  • Color comes from light; if it weren’t for light we would have no color
  • Light rays move in a straight path from a light source
    • Within light rays are all the rays of colors in the spectrum
    • Shining a light into a prism will create a rainbow of colors because it separates the color of the spectrum
  • When light rays hit an object our eye responds to the light that is bounced back and we see that color
    • For example a red ball reflects all the red light rays
categories of color
Categories of color
  • Primary Colors: cannot be mixed to be made
    • Red, yellow and blue
  • Secondary color: made by mixing two primaries
    • Orange, violet, green
  • Intermediate Colors: mixing a primary with a secondary
    • Red orange, yellow green, blue violet, etc.
  • Complementary colors: opposite each other on the color wheel
color harmonies
Color harmonies
  • When an artist uses certain combinations of colors that create different looks or feelings
  • Analogous colors
    • Next to eachother on the color wheel
  • Complementary Colors
    • Opposite eachother on the wheel
  • Triadic harmony
    • Three equally spaced colors on the color wheel are used
  • Monochromatic
    • One color but in different values and intensity
  • Rectangle (tetradic) colors
    • Four colors arranged in two complementary pairs
  • Square Color scheme
    • Four colors spaced evenly around the color circle
warm colors vs cool colors
Warm colors vs. Cool colors
  • Separated by a line through the color wheel
    • Cool on left, warm on right
  • Give the feeling of their name
  • When a line crosses itself or intersects with other lines to enclose a space
  • Two-dimensional
    • Heights and width but no depth
categories of shapes
Categories of shapes
  • Geometric
    • Circles, squares, rectangles and triangles
  • Organic
    • Leaf, seashells, flowers
      • Free flowing, informal and irregular
  • Positive
    • Solid forms in a design
  • Negative
    • Space around the positive shape
  • Static
    • Appear stable and resting
  • Dynamic
    • Appear moving and active
  • Refers to the arrangement of objects on the picture plane (surface)
  • Illusion of depth created by using perspective
categories of space
Categories of space
  • Positive space
    • Like positive shape
  • Negative Space
    • Like negative shape
  • Picture plane
    • Flat surface of your drawing paper or canvas
  • Composition
    • Organization and placement of the elements on your picture plane
  • Focal point
    • Object or area you want the viewer to look at first
types of perspective
Types of perspective
  • Non-linear perspective is the method of showing depth that incorporates the following techniques
    • Position
      • Higher = farther back
    • Overlapping
      • Object on top = closer
    • Size
      • Smaller = further
    • Color
      • Bright = closer
    • Value
      • Lighter = farther back
types of perspective continued
Types of perspective continued
  • Linear Perspective is the method of using lines to show the illusion of depth in a picture
    • One-point
      • Lines create by the sides of tables or building look like they are point to the distance and they all meet at one point on the horizon
    • Two point
      • Lines meeting at two points on the horizon
  • Surface quality of an object
  • The way a picture is made to look rough or smooth
  • Categories of texture:
    • Real texture
    • Implied texture
  • Range of lightness and darkness within a picture
  • Created by a light source that shines on an object creating highlights and shadows.
    • Light source illuminates the local or actual color of the subject
  • Creates depth within a picture making an object look three dimensional with highlights and cast shadows, or in a landscape where it gets lighter in value as it recedes to the background giving the illusion of depth
categories of values
Categories of values
  • Tint
    • Adding white to color paint to create lighter values
  • Shade
    • Adding black to paint to create darer values
  • High-key
    • Picture is all light values
  • Low-key
    • Picture is all dark values
  • Value contrast
    • Light values are placed next to dark values to create contrast or strong differences
  • Value scale
    • Scale that shows the gradual change in value from its lightest value, white to its darkest value black
  • Three dimensionality of an object
    • Using value can imply form
      • Shading a circle in a certain manner can turn it into a sphere
  • Five basic forms
    • Sphere, cube, cone, cylinder, pyramid