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Topic 5 Formation of Discipline-Managerialism: The Reform on Supply Side of in the Quasi-Market of Education. EDD 5213 Education Policy and Practice in HK. Reform on Quality Assurance Mechanism of Schooling.

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EDD 5213 Education Policy and Practice in HK


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    1. Topic 5Formation of Discipline-Managerialism: The Reform on Supply Side of in the Quasi-Market of Education EDD 5213 Education Policy and Practice in HK Reform on Quality Assurance Mechanism of Schooling

    2. Public sector reform movement in Post-WWII welfare states in western democratic-capitalistic countries Deregulation of public sectors Privatization of public institutions Marketization of public services Understanding of New Managerialism and Public Sector Reform

    3. The emergence of the ideas of New Public Management (NPM) “A system dominated by central government departments, local authorities …, and based upon the values and practices of public administration … is being replaced by a new set of practices and values, based upon a new language of welfare delivery which emphasizes (1) efficiency and value for money, (2) competition and markets, (3) consumerism and customer care.” (Butcher, 1995, quoted in Clark et al., 2000, p. 6; my numbering) Understanding of New Managerialism and Public Sector Reform

    4. The emergence of the ideas of New Public Management (NPM) The constituents of NPM: “NPM include Attention to output and performance rather than inputs; Organizations being viewed as chains of low-trust relationship, linked by contracts or contractual type processes; The separation of purchaser and providers or clients and contractor roles within formerly integrated processes or organizations; Breaking down large scale organization and using competition to enable ‘exit’ or ‘choice’ by service users; Decentralization of budgetary and personal authority to line managers.” (Clark et al., 2000, p. 6; my numbering) Understanding of New Managerialism and Public Sector Reform

    5. The emergence of the ideas of NPM The ideology of Managerialism Managerialization and managerialism “can be thought of as equivalent to the concepts of professionalization and professionalism. These terms refer to processes by which an occupational group claims to be the possessors of a distinctive - and valuable – sort of expertise, and uses that expertise as the basis for acquiring organizational and social power.” (Clark, 2000, p.9) Understanding of New Managerialism and Public Sector Reform

    6. The emergence of the ideas of NPM The ideology of Managerialism (cont’d) Managerialism can thus be defined as a institutional and organizational orientations, which emphasize the following values and assumptions Management by output and performance rather than by process and input Management by competition and ‘choice’ and ‘exit’ rather than by ‘voice’ and ‘loyalty’ Lean and ‘mean’ organization, i.e. sub-contracting and downsizing; contractualization of work Decentralization and devolution; individuation of work Understanding of New Managerialism and Public Sector Reform

    7. The set up of the Office for Standard in Education (Ofsted) in 1992 as the administrative arm of New Mangerialism Ofsted’s Commission of a study entitled Review of Key Determinant of School Effectiveness in 1994 The 11 Key Factors for Effective Schools: The result of the commissioned study produced by the research team of the Institute of Education of the London U New Managerialism in theUK

    8. The 11 Key Factors for Effective Schools: Professional leadership Shared version and goals Learning environment Concentration on teaching and learning Purposeful teaching High expectations Positive reinforcement Monitoring progress Pupil rights and responsibilities Home-school partnership A learning organization New Managerialism in the UK

    9. Debate over the result of the IEd research tam’s result “Stating the obvious” and “Verifying the common sense” Questioning the strength of causality of each Key Factors and that the checklist as a whole Query of the transferability and universality of the Factors Criticism on the “de-contextual” nature of the checklist Questioning the methodological fundament of the review: Can effective school be analytically dissected into exhaustive 11 Key Factors and/or 27 sub-factors? Query of the nature of the Factors: Are the 11 Key Factors and their 27 sub-factors summative and/or prescriptive? New Managerialism in the UK

    10. The checklist of Items of School Performance used by inspection team of the Ofsted: It consists of 80 items each of which is measured by 6-point scale (Excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, not satisfactory, bad). Taken together, they constitute a 323x6=1,738 matrix. New Managerialism in the UK

    11. The checklist of Items of School Performance Five Dimensions The effectiveness of the school: 10 items The standards achieved by pupils: 35 items Pupils’ attitudes, values and personal development: 15 items The quality of education provided by school: 125 items The leadership and management of the school: 38 items 6-point scale for each item Excellence Very good Good Satisfactory Unsatisfactory Poor A assessment matrix of a total of 323 x 6 = 1738 evaluative points New Managerialism in the UK

    12. Accountability mechanism: According to the inspection teams’ overall assessment schools will be graded into G1 – Outstanding, G2 - Good, G3 - Satisfactory, and G4 - Inadequate Schools graded as G4 (Inadequate) will be characterized as “Subject to Special Measure”, which entails intensive inspections by Her Majority’s Inspectorate (HMI). New Managerialism in the UK

    13. Accountability mechanism: (cont’d) As Jane Perryman reported in her case study, a school “subject to special measure” was inspected 8 times in 18 months, during which 5 of the inspection were undertaken within 9-month duration. (Perry, 2006, p.154) Schools “subject to special measure” have to produce significant improvement within two years. If not, they will be shut down. According to the 1997/98 Annual Report of the HMI, since 1993 there were 717 schools being categorized as “subject to special measure”, among which 55 were finally shut down. (Ofsted, 1999) New Managerialism in the UK

    14. Disciplinary-Power technology Hierarchical observation Normalizing judgment Examination Typology of power Physical force Traditional power Charismatic power Legal rational power Disciplinary power Disciplinary Power and Panopticonism

    15. Disciplinary-Power technology Hierarchical observation Observation and Gaze can serve as instrument of asserting disciplinary power in the following ways to scrutinize the induce effect of disciplinary power to put the recipients of discipline power totally visible Effective disciplinary gaze needs relays. In order to guarantee an uninterrupted network of observation a hierarchy of observation or a pyramid of gaze is required Disciplinary Power and Panopticonism

    16. Disciplinary-Power technology Normalizing judgment Disciplinary power is exercise through a micro-penalty mechanism of time, activity, behavior, speech, body, sexuality, etc. Punishments are imposed not only on infraction of rule but also on non-observance and inability to carry out expected task, in other words, penalty is not only restrictive but also prescriptive. Disciplinary punishment is corrective in nature. It usually takes the form of exercise, i.e. intensified, repeated, multiple forms of training Disciplinary penalty is built upon a polar judgment of good and evil, positive and negative, right and wrong, etc. These judgments should also be quantified into an accounting system of good and bad, merit and faults Subjects under the disciplinary power can be ranked or graded in accordance with their degree of conformity or compliance to the predetermined norms Disciplinary Power and Panopticonism

    17. Disciplinary-Power technology Examination: It is a combination of the techniques of both hierarchical observation and normalizing judgment. More specifically, it is a process of subjection of those who are supposed to be the learning subjects and a process of the objectification of those learning subjects who have been subjected. This process of subjection and objectification is operated through the following mechanism Documentation: Examination is a way to exercise disciplinary power by introducing documentation and visibility into the technology of power Individualization: Examination introduce individuality into the field of documentary Case-making: Examination turns individuals into cases to be described, judged, corrected, classified, normalized… Disciplinary Power and Panopticonism

    18. Disciplinary-Power technology Hierarchical observation Normalizing judgment Examination New managerialism as Panopticon on schools Disciplinary Power and Panopticonism

    19. New managerialism as Panopticon on schools Disciplinary Power and Panopticonism

    20. Disciplinary-Power technology Hierarchical observation Normalizing judgment Examination New managerialism as Panopticon on schools The principles of disciplinary power in Panopticon Principle of generalized surveillance has replace actual exercise of power or even physical power to obtain compliance Principle of constant visibility Principle of unverifiability Disciplinary Power and Panopticonism

    21. The Public Sector Reform The publication of the document Public Sector Reform (PSR) in 1989 PSR Pilot Study 1: The School Education Programme: The study team produced the Public Sector Reform: A Review of Roles and Responsibilities in Schools Education in Sept., 1990 The Formation of Discipline-Managerialism in School System of HKSAR

    22. The School Management Initiatives (SMI) The publication of The School Management Initiatives: Setting the Framework for Quality in HK Schools in March 1991 Definition of the problem: inadequate management structure and processes poorly defined roles and responsibilities the absence or inadequacy of performance measures an emphasis on detailed controls, rather than frameworks of responsibility and accountability an emphasis on cost control at the margins, rather than cost effectiveness and value for money The Development of SBM in Hong Kong: The Emergence of Managerialism in HKSAR

    23. The School Management Initiatives (SMI) Framework for effective school system Importation of Caldwell & Spinks (1988) The Self Managing School The Development of SBM in Hong Kong: The Emergence of Managerialism in HKSAR

    24. The School Management Initiatives (SMI) Implementation Framework School management committee (SMC) Constituting the constitution of the SMC Restructuring the SMC Annual School Plan School Profile Block grant funding Evaluation and measuring performance SMI planning and reporting framework The Development of SBM in Hong Kong: The Emergence of Managerialism in HKSAR

    25. The School Management Initiatives (SMI) Unpopularity of the SMI: Limited numbers of schools joined the SMI scheme Secondary Primary Special Total Aided Govt. Aided Govt. 1991 21 0 0 0 0 21 1992 3 10 0 0 0 13 1993 8 15 55 15 0 93 1994 7 11 9 15 4 46 Total 39 36 64 30 4 173 The Development of SBM in Hong Kong: The Emergence of Managerialism in HKSAR

    26. Education Commission Report No. 7 (1997) Making the managerialism stipulated in the unpopular SMI mandatory in the ECR No.7 Quality indicators Quality assurance Quality school management Quality incentives Quality teachers Quality Education Fund The Development of SBM in Hong Kong: The Emergence of Managerialism in HKSAR

    27. Building up of the mechanism of Discipline-Managerialism Publications of Performance Indicators in 1998: Building up the skeleton of standardization of the discipline-managerialism of schools with 4 domains 17 areas 44 aspects 99 components 240+ What to look for? The Development of SBM in Hong Kong: The Emergence of Managerialism in HKSAR

    28. 表現指標 範疇:管理及組織

    29. 表現指標 範疇:教與學 (第二版) 課程策劃與組織 課程管理 策劃與技巧 態度與知識 課堂氣氛 學習過程中的表現和進展 評估政策與制度 評估方法 評估資料的運用 重點

    30. 表現指標 範疇:校風及給予學生的支援

    31. 表現指標 範疇:學業及學業以外的表現

    32. Building up of the mechanism of Discipline-Managerialism Introducing the three-tier quality assurance mechanism School self evaluation ay school level Quality assurance inspection (QAI) at system level Experts’ report and international comparative studies at global level The Development of SBM in Hong Kong: The Emergence of Managerialism in HKSAR

    33. Building up of the mechanism of Discipline-Managerialism Introducing the three-tier quality assurance mechanism School self evaluation ay school level Quality assurance inspection (QAI) at system level Experts’ report and international comparative studies at global level Implementation of the Quality Assurance Inspection (QAI) in 1998 The Development of SBM in Hong Kong: The Emergence of Managerialism in HKSAR

    34. 全港層面