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What is DNA?. What is DNA Day?. What is DNA Day?. April 1953 Drs. James Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of DNA (double helix). What is DNA Day?. April 1953 Drs. James Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of DNA (double helix). April 2003

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What is DNA?


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  1. What is DNA?

  2. What is DNA Day?

  3. What is DNA Day? April 1953 Drs. James Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of DNA(double helix)

  4. What is DNA Day? April 1953 Drs. James Watson and Francis Crick determined the structure of DNA(double helix) April 2003 Human Genome Project determined the entire DNA sequence of a human(3 billion letters)

  5. What is Pharmacogenomics? R X

  6. What is Pharmacogenomics? Pharma = drug or medicine Genomics = the study of genes R X

  7. What is Pharmacogenomics? Pharma = drug or medicine Genomics = the study of genes Personalized medicine tailored to your genes R X

  8. Case Study – Breast Cancer Patients

  9. Case Study – Breast Cancer Patients Tumoricide

  10. Case Study – Breast Cancer Patients

  11. Case Study – Breast Cancer Patients 30%

  12. No Effect/Hurt Helped Tumoricide

  13. No Effect/Hurt Helped Tumoricide Why?

  14. How do scientists make personalized medicine? You Your cells Your DNA Picture credit: adapted from Riken Research: http://www.rikenresearch.riken.jp/eng/frontline/5514

  15. How do scientists make personalized medicine? You Your cells It’s all about what makes YOUR genetic code UNIQUE Your DNA Picture credit: adapted from Riken Research: http://www.rikenresearch.riken.jp/eng/frontline/5514

  16. Genetic Code: DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) contains all the information necessary to make a complete organism DNA is composed of a combination of 4 nucleotides

  17. Genetic Code: DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) contains all the information necessary to make a complete organism DNA is composed of a combination of 4 nucleotides A Adenine

  18. Genetic Code: DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) contains all the information necessary to make a complete organism DNA is composed of a combination of 4 nucleotides A T Adenine Thymine

  19. Genetic Code: DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) contains all the information necessary to make a complete organism DNA is composed of a combination of 4 nucleotides A C T Adenine Thymine Cytosine

  20. Genetic Code: DNA DeoxyriboNucleic Acid (DNA) contains all the information necessary to make a complete organism DNA is composed of a combination of 4 nucleotides A G Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine C T

  21. The Central Dogma: DNARNAProtein DNA: A long double-stranded string of nucleotides that encode for many genes. Gene

  22. The Central Dogma: DNARNAProtein DNA: A long double-stranded string of nucleotides that encode for many genes. Gene RNA RNA: A single-stranded copy of one gene.

  23. The Central Dogma: DNARNAProtein DNA: A long double-stranded string of nucleotides that encode for many genes. Gene RNA: A single-stranded copy of one gene. Protein: Proteins are composed of amino acids. Amino acids are made from triplets of nucleotides called codons. RNA

  24. The Central Dogma: DNARNAProtein DNA: A long double-stranded string of nucleotides that encode for many genes. Gene RNA: A single-stranded copy of one gene. Protein: Proteins are composed amino acids. Amino acids are made from triplets of nucleotides called codons. Codon 1

  25. The Central Dogma: DNARNAProtein DNA: A long double-stranded string of nucleotides that encode for many genes. Gene RNA: A single-stranded copy of one gene. Protein: Proteins are composed amino acids. Amino acids are made from triplets of nucleotides called codons. Codon 1 Codon 2

  26. The Central Dogma: DNARNAProtein DNA: A long double-stranded string of nucleotides that encode for many genes. Gene RNA: A single-stranded copy of one gene. Amino acid 2 Amino acid 1 Protein: Proteins are composed amino acids. Amino acids are made from triplets of nucleotides called codons. Codon 1 Codon 2

  27. The Central Dogma: DNARNAProtein DNA: A long double-stranded string of nucleotides that encode for many genes. Gene RNA: A single-stranded copy of one gene. Amino acid 2 Amino acid 1 Protein: Proteins are composed amino acids. Amino acids are made from triplets of nucleotides called codons. Codon 1 Codon 2 Protein!

  28. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT

  29. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT Amino Acids/Protein: Met

  30. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val

  31. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val Leu

  32. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val Leu Ser

  33. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val Leu Ser Pro

  34. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val Leu Ser Pro

  35. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT ATG GTG CTG TCT ACT Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val Leu Ser Pro

  36. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT ATG GTG CTG TCT ACT Amino Acids/Protein: Amino Acids/Protein: Met Met Val Val Leu Leu Ser Ser Thr Pro

  37. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT ATG GTG CTG TCT ACT Amino Acids/Protein: Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val Leu Ser Thr Met Val Leu Ser Pro Words: Tom and Sam are bad

  38. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT ATG GTG CTG TCT ACT Amino Acids/Protein: Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val Leu Ser Thr Met Val Leu Ser Pro Words: Tom and Sam are bad Words: Tom and Sam are sad

  39. A small change in the gene sequence can result in a very different protein DNA: DNA: ATG GTG CTG TCT ACT ATG GTG CTG TCT CCT Amino Acids/Protein: Amino Acids/Protein: Met Val Leu Ser Thr Met Val Leu Ser Pro Words: Tom and Sam are bad Words: Tom and Sam are sad Changes in DNA are called variations or mutations Variations in the DNA (genotype) can cause observable changes (phenotype) in individuals

  40. Variationsin our DNA make us UNIQUE!

  41. No Effect/Hurt Helped Tumoricide Why does Tumoricide work on some patients but not on others?

  42. What are the reasons a person would react differently to drugs? • Having the receptor (protein) to recognize the drug • Other physiological traits that enable you to respond to a drug • How your body processes the drugs after receiving it

  43. Drugs and Receptors Cell

  44. Drugs and Receptors Receptor (Protein) Cell

  45. Drugs and Receptors Receptor (Protein) Cell

  46. Drugs and Receptors Drug (Ligand) Receptor (Protein) Cell

  47. Drugs and Receptors Drug (Ligand) Receptor (Protein) Cell

  48. Your DNA and Drugs Variation in genes can cause variation in receptors Cell

  49. Your DNA and Drugs Variation in genes can cause variation in receptors Cell