What organic molecule is DNA?. Nucleic Acid. Nucleic Acid. An organic molecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus Examples: DNA ????. RNA. What differences do you see between DNA and RNA?. Differences between RNA and DNA.
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Is a disposable copy of a segment of DNA
Main function is protein synthesis.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
the RNA molecule that carries the copies of instructions for assembling amino acids.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
the RNA that combined with many other proteins, make up the ribosomes that assemble proteins
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
carries amino acids to the ribosomes and matches them to the coded mRNA
Genetic code – The language consisting of 4 letters (A, C, G, and U) that gives the instructions for building amino acids
The code is read three “letters” at a time, so each “word” is three bases long
There are 64 different 3 letter combinations of the 4 bases A,T,C and G (so 64 codons)
Most amino acids can have more than one codon that codes for them
ex. UUA, UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA and CUG all code for the amino acid tryptophan
There are also codons that that code for the beginning and ending of protein synthesis.
“start” codons – where the reading of the mRNA begins. (The amino acid methionine is a start codon)
“stop” codon- where the reading ends.
**Polypeptides- long chains of amino acids joined together.
The amino acids in a polypeptide, and the order in which they are joined, determine the properties of the different proteins.
Ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to assemble amino acids into polypeptide chains.
(Ribosomes translate the code)
Translation is carried out by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
Step 1: A ribosome attaches to mRNA
Many proteins are enzymes, which catalyze and regulate chemical reactions.
Proteins regulate patterns of growth, patterns of development in humans, and they build or operate different components of a living cell.