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Helping Consumers to Remember

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  1. CHAPTER 13 Helping Consumers to Remember

  2. Helping Consumers Remember

  3. Helping Consumers Remember Failing to remember is a common occurrence in consumer behavior Such memory failures in the context of product purchase and consumption translates into lost sales and profits Consumers’ ability to remember also plays a role in advertising effectiveness

  4. Helping Consumers Remember Advertising’s long-term effects may depend on consumer memory Advertising may focus on activating consumers’ memory of past consumption experiences Consumer memory is also an important part of nostalgia advertising appeals which evoke favorable memories of the past

  5. Helping Consumers Remember Remembering consists of: Cognitive learning: getting information into memory Retrieval: getting it back out

  6. Cognitive Learning: Rehearsal Cognitive learning occurs when information processed in short-term memory is stored in long-term memory

  7. Cognitive Learning: Rehearsal Cognitive learning occurs when information processed in short-term memory is stored in long-term memory Rehearsal involves the mental repetition of information or, the recycling of information through short-term memory Rehearsal may be described as a form of inner speech

  8. Cognitive Learning: Rehearsal Rehearsal serves two functions: Helps maintain information in short-term memory Aids in the transfer of information in short-term memory to long-term memory

  9. Cognitive Learning: Rehearsal Rehearsal serves two functions: Helps maintain information in short-term memory Aids in the transfer of information in short-term memory to long-term memory Greater rehearsal increases the strength of long-term memory trace, thereby enhancing the likelihood that trace can later be retrieved

  10. Cognitive Learning: Elaboration Elaboration: the degree of integration between the stimulus and existing knowledge

  11. Cognitive Learning: Elaboration Elaboration: the degree of integration between the stimulus and existing knowledge At low levels of elaboration, stimuli are processed in much the same way they are encountered At greater levels of elaboration, more links between the new information and information stored in memory are created

  12. Elaboration Using low level of elaboration to remember a license plate number A J N 2 6 8 Using greater level of elaboration to remember the same license plate number JAN 16

  13. Cognitive Learning: Elaboration Motivation plays a role in the amount of elaboration a person employs to remember Intentional learning Incidental learning

  14. Cognitive Learning: Elaboration Motivation plays a role in the amount of elaboration a person employs to remember Intentional learning Incidental learning Knowledge allows more meaningful elaboration Ability to learn depends on both individual and environmental factors

  15. Cognitive Learning: Mental Representations Mental representations: the particular manner in which information is stored in long-term memory

  16. Cognitive Learning: Mental Representations Mental representations: the particular manner in which information is stored in long-term memory Stimuli may be stored in same form in which they appear, or transformed (the price of a dress may be remembered as $200 or expensive)

  17. Cognitive Learning: Mental Representations Dual coding proposes that information can be stored in both semantic and visual forms

  18. Cognitive Learning: Mental Representations Dual coding proposes that information can be stored in both semantic and visual forms Having multiple representations increases the number of possible mental pathways that can be traveled when trying to remember

  19. Using Mental Representations To Increase Learning

  20. 文不如表、表不如圖 參考資料:陳俊生71快速記憶法PS:請採用正統方式學英文

  21. Cognitive Learning: Mental Representations Associative network: memory nodes containing bits of information are linked to other memory nodes in a series of hierarchical networks

  22. An Associative Network for Disney (partial) Magic Kingdom Located in Orlando Disney Epcot Parks Walt Disney World Resort Great Fun Animal Kingdom MGM Studios Expensive

  23. Retrieval Retrieval: the activation of information stored in long-term memory that is then transferred into short-term memory The cycle of remembering

  24. The Cycle of Remembering Short-term Memory

  25. The Cycle of Remembering Learning Short-term Memory Long-term Memory

  26. The Cycle of Remembering Learning Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Retrieval

  27. Retrieval Successful retrieval depends on: Strength of memory trace of the to-be-remembered information The number and strength of linkages between the to-be-remembered item and other memory nodes Spreading activation: activating one memory node creates a ripple effect that spreads throughout its linkages to other nodes

  28. Retrieval Retrieval can be enhanced by retrieval cues: stimuli that activate information in memory relevant to the to-be-remembered information

  29. Retrieval: Forgetting • Forgetting:the failure to retrieve something from memory • Decay theory: memories grow weaker with the passage of time

  30. Retrieval: Forgetting Even when memory trace is strong, people forget things because not all information in long-term memory can be retrieved at one point in time If retrieval fails, sometimes information will “pop” into our minds later

  31. Retrieval: Forgetting Failure to retrieve something which has not faded from memory is attributable to interference Interference theory: the chances of retrieving a particular piece of information become smaller as interference from other information becomes larger Clutter of advertising may also interfere with retrieval

  32. Retrieval: Recognition and Recall Retrieval also depends on whether the information requires recall and recognition

  33. Retrieval: Recognition and Recall Retrieval also depends on whether the information requires recall and recognition Recognition requires identifying something as familiar because we’ve seen it before With brand or ad recognition measures, the to-be-remembered information is provided

  34. Retrieval: Recognition and Recall Recall is more cognitively demanding than recognition Unaided (free) recall does not contain any retrieval cues Aided (cued) recall provides cues to help someone remember Consumers remember more when they answer aided rather than unaided recall measures

  35. Retrieval: Product Awareness When consumers use internal search to form their consideration sets, they must recall brand names from memory Brand recognition, in this instance, is not as important as brand recall

  36. Retrieval: Product Awareness When consumers use internal search to form their consideration sets, they must recall brand names from memory Brand recognition, in this instance, is not as important as brand recall Sometimes consideration sets are formed at the point of purchase In this case, product awareness in the form of recognition is vital

  37. Retrieval: Product Awareness Brand recognition focuses on more than just the name Showing the packaging in an ad helps recognition when in the store

  38. Retrieval: Advertising Awareness Many companies focus on what consumers remember about their advertising messages, rather than on how many remember seeing it

  39. Retrieval: Advertising Awareness Companies should focus on what consumers remember about their advertising messages Do they remember the advertised brand? Day-after recall (DAR): measures brand recall 24 hours after ad exposure What do they remember about the ad claims?

  40. Retrieval: Advertising Awareness Why should companies focus on what consumers remember about their advertising messages? If consumers don’t remember the brand, then the other things they do remember will not be linked to the brand in memory If consumers are confused about which brand was in the ad, they might link the ad claims to another brand

  41. How Companies Can Help Consumers to Remember

  42. How Companies Can Help Consumers to Remember Get More Attention

  43. How Companies Can Help Consumers to Remember Get More Attention The more attention given to a stimulus, the greater the chances of being remembered There are a number of ways companies can enhance consumers’ attention to their messages Pleasant ambient scents enhance brand recall and recognition

  44. How Companies Can Help Consumers to Remember Reminders

  45. How Companies Can Help Consumers to Remember Reminders Advertising that reminds consumers to buy a product Postcards reminding consumers to make an appointment Retrieval cues placed on packaging and at the point of purchase to enhance ad effectiveness

  46. How Companies Can Help Consumers to Remember Reminders Free stickers help consumers remember the company’s information Free products act as mini-billboards and build goodwill The Internet is useful for delivering reminders and making recommendations to consumers

  47. Helping Consumers to Remember with Reminders

  48. How Companies Can Help Consumers to Remember Use Retrieval Cues

  49. How Companies Can Help Consumers to Remember Use Retrieval Cues Retrieval cues activate relevant product information in memory at the point of purchase Retrieval cues also help to link the favorable feelings generated by an ad to the product Different types of retrieval cues may be most effective depending on the language of communication

  50. Helping Consumers to Remember with Retrieval Cues