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The Science of Chemistry

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  1. The Science of Chemistry

  2. Before chemistry there was….. Alchemy

  3. Alchemy:A medieval science and philosophy aiming to achieve: 1. Transmutation of base metals (like lead) into gold

  4. Alchemy 2. Discovery of a universal cure for disease

  5. Alchemy 3. Discovery of a way to prolong life

  6. Has modern science achieved these things? Wealth for all? Cure for disease? Prolonged life?

  7. Why is Gold valuable? • Rare • Pretty • Soft, easy to shape • Resists corrosion • Chemically unreactive

  8. Modern Chemistry The science that studies the structure, composition, and properties of substances and their transformations (Webster)

  9. What are the simplest substances? • The ELEMENTS ( only about 90 occur naturally, 114 discovered) • Listed in the Periodical Table • Basic building blocks for all other more complex substances (compounds) found in the universe

  10. Abundance of common elements in the Universe • 60% Hydrogen H element #1 • 37% Helium He element #2 • 3% elements # 3-90

  11. Abundance of elements on Earth (crust and atmosphere) • 35% iron • 30 % oxygen • 15 % silicon • 13% Magnesium • 2.4% nickel • 4.6% others

  12. Origin of the Elements Big Bang!

  13. Big Bang • 15-20 billion years ago • Matter and energy scatter, expand, and cool • Matter condenses to form galaxies, Element Hydrogen forms • Stars form in galaxies. In stars, H fuses to form Helium and energy • More fusion allows heavier elements to form

  14. We are all star dust……

  15. Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume) What is NOT matter???

  16. Classification of Matter

  17. Matter Can it be separated by physical means? If yes….

  18. Then you have a Mixture

  19. Physical ways to separate a mixture • Filtering (particle size) • Distillation (boiling point) (dissolved solid)

  20. Physical ways to separate a mixture • Chromatography (attraction to paper)

  21. Is the mixture uniform throughout? • IF yes, it is HOMOGENEOUS

  22. If no, then the mixture is Heterogeneous

  23. Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous mixtures


  25. If matter can NOT be separated by physical means…. It is a SUBSTANCE If the substance can’t be broken down, it is an ELEMENT Elements are made of only one type of atom Ex. Aluminum, carbon, oxygen

  26. SUBSTANCE If the substance CAN be broken down, it is a COMPOUND, made of two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bonded together. Ex. Water (2 Hydrogens and 1 oxygen)

  27. YES NO YES NO Yes NO

  28. ELEMENTS can be…. • MONATOMIC : single atoms Al • DIATOMIC : two of the same atom bonded together in pairs O2 • POLYATOMIC: three or more of the same atom bonded together O3

  29. 7 Diatomic Elements

  30. Particles of Matter


  32. CHEMISTRY: THE STUDY OF MATTER Did you know that…….. One of the most popular “foods” in the United States is an entirely SYNTHETIC (man-made) mixture. Can you guess what it is?

  33. SODA The average person consumes 40 GALLONS (!) of soda each year Mixture: carbonated water sweetener, acids, flavorings, caffeine

  34. States of Matter GAS LIQUID SOLID

  35. Physical Properties of Matter The properties of a substance that can be demonstrated without changing the composition of the substance Size (length, volume) Density Mass Color

  36. Physical Properties Melting Point Ex. Ice (solid water) starts to melt to liquid water at 0 degrees Celsius Boiling Point Ex. Water boils into steam at 100 degrees Celsius

  37. Physical Properties Malleability: can be pounded into a new shape without breaking Metals are malleable

  38. Physical Properties Iron is malleable Fe

  39. Physical Properties Ductility Can be pulled into long wires without breaking Metals are ductile

  40. Physical Properties Crystal Shape Reflects the regular arrangement of atoms in the solid

  41. Physical Change A change in the sample of matter that does not result in a NEW substance: Phase Changes Changes in shape Solid liquid gas

  42. Chemical Properties of Matter How matter behaves when it changes into a NEW substance. EX. Iron rusts silver tarnishes Milk sours sugar ferments eggs rot leaves turn paper burns

  43. Chemical Change Substance changes into a NEW substance. This change is often an irreversible and permanent change in composition

  44. Burning

  45. Tarnishing