THE PASSIVE VOICE. English grammar 4ºESO Montse Flores Adeva & Ana Hernández Bartolomé IES Hoces del Duratón. The Passive Voice: Outline. 1. Shifts in grammatical levels Verb phrase level Clause level 2. Constraints Verb constraints Agent constraints Frequency constraints.
Montse Flores Adeva & Ana Hernández Bartolomé
IES Hoces del Duratón
1. Shifts in grammatical levels
1. THE VERB PHRASE LEVEL
Active voice verb
tense & meaning
Passive‘BE’ + past participle
Examples: active passive
Present: simple, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous
Past: simple, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous
Future: simple, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous
Conditional: simple, continuous, perfect, perfect continuous
Infinitive: present, perfect
Participle: present, perfect
2. THE CLAUSE LEVEL
The passivization involves the rearrangement of 2 elements:
1. The active object becomes the passive subject.
Intel makesPentium chips.
Pentium chipsare made by Intel.
2. The active subject becomes the passive agent. If mentioned, the preposition ‘BY’ appears before the agent.
Engineers design PC languages.
PC languages are designed byengineers.
Some problems are solvedbytechnicians.
Some tools were stolen last night. (by thieves).
3. In sentences with D.O. and I. O. there are two passive forms, but the passive with the I.O. subject is the most common one (if animated).
The company sentusall the information.
All the informationwas sentto us by the company.
Wewere sentall the information.
They sent us a CV.
The boss gave me a raise.
I gave the dog a bone.
They gave their daughter to the church.
1. VERB CONSTRAINTS
The child is sleeping soundly.
The girl plays happily.
Tom resembles his grandad.
2. AGENT CONSTRAINTS
I was sent to the shop to buy buns but all the buns were sold.
John and Jim had a fight and John was beaten.
Order has been restored without violence and without bloodshed.
3. FREQUENCY CONSTRAINTS
The passive voice is generally used:
English is spoken here.
Shoes mended while you wait.
I’ve been robbed.
The victor was cheered.
3. FREQUENCY CONSTRAINTS (2)
The PM arrived back from Australia last night and he was asked about the opinion of the latest detentions of suspected terrorists.
A lot of care has been taken with the present text.
3. FREQUENCY CONSTRAINTS (3)
The job must be done by six.
The soldier was wounded by a bullet.