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Solar Power. Nicola Rhyan, Alec Straughan, Jonathon McBride. A Brief History of Solar Energy. Sun's energy has been used for many, many years 700 B.C. - First recorded use of sun and magnifying glass to start fire 300 B.C - Greeks and Romans use mirrors to light torches

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Solar Power


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    1. Solar Power Nicola Rhyan, Alec Straughan, Jonathon McBride

    2. A Brief History of Solar Energy Sun's energy has been used for many, many years • 700 B.C. - First recorded use of sun and magnifying glass to start fire • 300 B.C - Greeks and Romans use mirrors to light torches • 200 B.C - Archimedes's Solar Powered Weapon • Greek navy recreated in 1973 • Mythbusters attempted to recreate • MIT successfully recreated

    3. http://www.politico.com/politico44/perm/1010/not_a_myth_c1801013-09ec-4d39-ae9f-ccdad3233e1e.htmlhttp://www.politico.com/politico44/perm/1010/not_a_myth_c1801013-09ec-4d39-ae9f-ccdad3233e1e.html http://web.mit.edu/2.009/www/experiments/deathray/10_ArchimedesResult.html

    4. A Brief History of Solar Energy (cont.) • Between 200 B.C to 1700s • many examples of the sun being used in architecture to heat/light building • 1767 - First solar powered cooker invented • 1839 - Photovoltaic effect discovered • 1860s - Solar powered steam engine developed by August Mouchet and Abel Pifre • 1873 - Photoconductivity of selenium discovered • 1883- first selenium solar cells designed • 1916- Photoelectric effect proved experimentally

    5. A Brief History of Solar Energy (cont.) • 1921- Albert Einstein wins Nobel Prize for theories on photoelectric effect • 1954 - Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller, and Gerald Pearson develop the first silicon photovoltaic cell • first cell capable of creating enough energy to run electrical equipment • 4% efficient. Later reached 11% efficiency. • Bridgers-Paxton building (first solar commercial building) constructed • 1950s-60s - solar cells used in space satellites http://www.earthalert.org/articles/solar_building.html

    6. A Brief History of Solar Energy (cont.) • 1973 - University of Delaware build "Solar One." One of the first photovoltaic powered residences. • 1977 - total photovoltaic energy production reaches 500 kilowatts • 1996 - Department of Energy begins operating Solar Two, a solar thermal plant that was capable of storing energy and producing energy when sun wasn't shining • 1999 - photovoltaic capacity reaches 1000 megawatts • 2001 - Home Depot begins selling residential solar cells http://dexarch.wordpress.com/ http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/pdfs/solar_timeline.pdf

    7. The Sun is responsible for which of the following energy sources? Wind Energy Hydroelectric Power Fossil Fuels Biomass Solar Energy All of the above

    8. The Sun is responsible for which of the following energy sources? Wind Energy Hydroelectric Power Fossil Fuels Biomass Solar Energy All of the above

    9. watt = 1 joule/hour kilowatt-hours = work done of 1000 watts for 1 hour, or 3.6 megajoules

    10. Average energy per square meter of sun at noon? 10 Watts 20 Watts 150 Watts 1000 Watts 10,500 Watts

    11. Average energy per square meter of sun at noon? 10 Watts 20 Watts 150 Watts 1000 Watts 10,500 Watts

    12. Power of the Sun

    13. Average 4.2 kwh per day 6 3.6 0.7

    14. Solar Energy Map of the World

    15. Statistics: U.S. Solar Energy Production Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Ecoworld

    16. Statistics: US Photovoltaic Solar Production Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Ecoworld

    17. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Photoelectric Effect

    18. Photovoltaic Effect PV Cell • Light absorption • Separation of charge carriers • Extraction of e- and e- holes

    19. Materials of Absorbance monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon,cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide • Monocrystalline silicon • Polycrystalline silicon • Cadmium telluride • Copper Gallium selenide/sulfide • p-type • n-type

    20. Solar Farms

    21. Concentrated Photovoltaics Pros • Fewer/Smaller PV Cells • Multijunction Tandem Cells Cons • Solar Trackers • Lens/Mirror • Cooling System • Price/Performance ratio

    22. Multijunction vs. Single Cell Silicon has single junction ~23% Multijunction ~30-40% up to 43% Valued in power-to-weight http://www.nsinnovations.com.au/news/solar_cell_record.html

    23. Future of PV -Advancement of price efficiency -Architectural integration -Efficiency of solar cell technology, esp. concentrated -Subsidy from government

    24. Largest Photovoltaic Plants 1. “Gujarat Solar Park” in India — 600 MW 2. “Golmud Solar Park” in China — 200 MW 3. “Perovo Solar Park” in Ukraine — 100 MW 4. “Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant” in Canada — 97 MW 5. “Montalto di Castro Photovoltaic Power Station” in Italy — 84.2 MW 6. “Finsterwalde Solar Park” in Germany — 80.7 MW 7. “Ohotnikovo Solar Park” in Ukraine — 80 MW 8. “Solarpark Senftenberg” in Germany — 78 MW 9. “Lieberose Photovoltaic Park” in Germany — 71.8 MW 10. “Rovigo Photovoltaic Power Plant” in Italy — 70 MW

    25. Solar Thermal Energy (STE) • Different than the photovoltaic effect • Mirrors or lenses concentrate sun's energy to use the heat • Ranges from residential use to large scale energy production Solar Two: solar thermal power plant that used molten salt to store energy http://dexarch.wordpress.com/

    26. Heat Storage in STE Several options • molten salts • 60% sodium nitrate 40% potassium nitrate • 220 degrees C • graphite • directly - heat graphite • indirectly - salts transfer heat to graphite

    27. Low Temperature Collectors • 76 % of solar thermal collectors in 2009 • Flat plates • Used in HVAC systems for residential and commercial buildings • Often used to heat pools http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/solarreport/table2_10.html http://solar-thermal.anu.edu.au/low-temperature/ http://mapawatt.com/tag/solar-thermal-schematic/ http://www.alternativeenergyprimer.com/Solar-Pool-Heating.html

    28. Flat-plate collector: One Way to Store Energy • sunlight hits absorber plate • transfers the heat to a liquid in copper tubes • a pump circulates the liquid through the plate to absorb the most heat possible • effective for heating water or baseboard heaters

    29. Flat Plate Collector Source: http://solar.calfinder.com/library/thermal/space-heating/active-thermal-heat/heat-collectors/liquid-flat-plate

    30. Medium Temperature Collectors • 16% of solar thermal collectors in 2009 • Could produce estimated 50% of hot water for US residential and commercial buildings • Solar cookers • Distillation http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy07osti/41157.pdf http://www.getgreenair.com/solar

    31. High Temperature Collectors • 7% of solar thermal collectors in 2009 • Use heat to create energy rather than photoelectric effect • Allow mass production of energy

    32. Solar Towers • Concentrate Sun's heat on one point • Use heat to create energy • Up to 98% thermally efficient • Produce between 4 - 46 megawatts of energy http://www.renewbl.com/2009/04/28/the-worlds-largest-solar-power-tower-plant-begins-operation.html

    33. http://www.skepticalscience.com/pics/SolarThermalPowerTower.pnghttp://www.skepticalscience.com/pics/SolarThermalPowerTower.png

    34. Parabolic Troughs • Concentrate thermal energy on heat transfer fluid http://www.renewbl.com/2009/07/02/solar-millenium-officially-inaugurated-andasol-1-parabolic-trough-power-plant.html SEGS plant in California- 350 MW

    35. Solar Updraft Tower Manzares Tower in Spain

    36. Solar Updraft Tower • Could be combined easily with other technology • Allows production at night

    37. Fresnel Reflectors • Newer Technology • Different way to concentrate sun's energy • Simpler to design than parabolic troughs • Prototypes in Australia, Belgium • Proposed plants in Spain

    38. Fresnel Reflectors

    39. Largest Solar Thermal Plants 1. “Solar Energy Systems” in the Mojave Desert of California, USA — 354 MW 2. “Solnova Solar Power Station” in Seville, Spain — 150 MW 3. “Andasol Solar Power Station” in Granada, Spain — 150 MW 4. “Extresol Solar Power Station” in Torre de Miguel Sesmero, Spain — 1oo MW 5. “Palma del Río Solar Power Station” in Córdoba, Spain — 100 MW 6. “Manchasol Solar Power Station” in Ciudad Real, Spain — 100 MW 7. “Martin Next Generation Solar Energy Center” in Florida, USA — 75 MW 8. “Nevada Solar One” in Boulder City, Nevada, USA — 64 MW

    40. Advantages of STE • Becomes more efficient at higher temperatures • photovoltaics less efficient • Can be up to 98% thermally efficient • Small area of desert could supply lots of energy • Unlimited supply • No emissions other than in construction • Many possibilities with combining different sources of STE

    41. Disadvantages/Obstacles of STE • Cannot fully support electricity demands • Cost of materials • Land use • Connection to power grid • Difficulty in design - tracking the sun

    42. General Advantages No Pollution • While pollution still results from manufacturing and transporting solar panels, there is not pollution admitted during the process of absorbing sunlight • Unlike burning fossil fuels which emits 21.3. billion tons of carbon dioxide a year Source: http://www.clean-energy-ideas.com/articles/pros_and_cons_of_solar_energy.html

    43. General Advantages • We will not run out of solar energy • If we learn how to collect and store solar energy efficiently we have the potential to rely completely on solar energy. • The Sun provides 6000 times more energy per day than we consume in 24 hours Source: http://www.clean-energy-ideas.com/articles/pros_and_cons_of_solar_energy.html

    44. General Advantages • By installing solar panels on roof tops we are able to conserve space on Earth Source: Renewable Energy World News Network http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/blog/post/2012/02/the-pros-and-cons-of-solar-energy-what-we-like-about-solar-energy-and-what-we-dont