CO2 ‘Capture Ready’ Boilers- An Update International Workshop On Carbon Capture And Storage In The Power Sector R. Padmanabhan Doosan Babcock Energy, Chennai Hotel Ashok, New Delhi – 22-23 January 2008
Nuclear Thermal Turbine & Generator Desalination Casting & Forging Construction Company update • Our new name - Doosan Babcock Energy • Subsidiary of Doosan Heavy Industries of South Korea, and part of the Doosan Group – the oldest and one of the top 10 conglomerates in Korea • US$13bn turnover company • Market leader in gas, coal, nuclear power generation and desalination. • e.g. SIPAT, 3 x 660MWe and Mundra, 5 x 800MWe • Our commitment is to all forms of power generation, including clean coal, nuclear, gas and renewables • The Doosan Group’s ‘Centre of Excellence’ and global R&D base for Boilers and CO2 capture – which includes our India organisation
In one year - How things have changed for coal and gas • 14th Sept 07, Hans Stehr, chairman of UN CDM Exec Board: ``Fossil fuel will remain a big part of the world's energy mix for decades to come,... essential we burn that fuel as efficiently as possible.'' • World Wide Recognition: The new plants will operate for 40- 50 years; So they need to be built ‘Capture Ready’- ‘TODAY’ to avoid carbon lock-in • EU Agrees that renewables and energy efficiency, whilst vital, are ‘not enough’ • Coal has a huge role in the new EU Energy Policy • New Plant to be ‘capture ready’ from 2010, • 10-12 demonstrations of CCS operational by 2015, • CCS in operation from 2020, • Gas has its issues • Price instability. • Security of supply. • Gas is also a CO2 emitter, will need CCS for deep cuts So coal projects beginning to be developed which are ‘Capture Ready’
40 35 30 25 Net Efficiency % (LHV) 20 15 10 5 0 Amine Oxy Combustion IGCC Comparison of Carbon Capture options for Coal power plant • Three options: • Post Combustion Capture – Amine or • Ammonia scrubbing • Oxyfuel firing(Doosan Babcock Focus) • Precombustion – IGCC Specific Investment costs (Euro/kw) 1400-1800 Euro/kw for New build, 800 Euro/kw for Retrofit Net Cycle Efficiencies (%LHV) Amine Oxyfuel IGCC Cost of Electricity (Eurocents/kwh) 5 -6.2 Euro/kwh for New build, <5 Euro/kwh for retrofit Many studies show these result in are broadly similar efficiency and cost of electricity. No clear winner, but PCC and Oxyfuel will be needed for retrofit plants currently being built around the world (incl. India) From joint paper with Jacobs at Powergen 2006 Amine Oxyfuel IGCC
Ferrybridge – AS Retrofit – Oxyfuel Capture Ready A ‘future proofed’ Advanced Supercritical Retrofit to Ferrybridge Power Station – Oxyfuel capture ready.
Ferrybridge Retrofit Specifics Present Boiler Subcritical boiler 4 x 500MWe units Ordered 1961, commissioned mid/late 60’s Steam Conditions:160 bar,565oC/ 565oC
Ferrybridge - Supercritical Boiler Retrofit with Oxyfuel ‘Capture Ready’ • 507 MWe (gross)476MWe (net) /unit, • 290 bar/ 6000C / 6100C • BMCR steam flow 1,380 Te/hr • Bituminous coal with up to 25% Biomass • BOFA system • New boiler within existing boiler house • Re-use of much BOP equipment,new SCR and FGD • POSIFLOWTM low mass flux furnace
Ferrybridge ASR Capture Ready Application - Summary • Currently sub-critical operation with cycle efficiency 36.7% • With SCR and FGD, new cycle efficiency 44.7% • 22% increase in overall efficiency, despite SCR/FGD penalty • CO2 reduction (with load factor of 70%) is 483,500tes/yr • 18% reduction in CO2 emissions • Status of design : • No technical showstoppers • ASR boiler fits easily within existing structure • Turbine layout compatible with existing foundations • Anticipated costs within budget
What will a Supercritical Retrofit involve at Longannet & Cockenzie? • Replacement of boiler pressure parts, within boilerhouse envelope • Lighter boiler weight means re-use of existing primary structure • Replacement of HP and IP turbine, modified LP turbine • Replacement of all steam and feed water piping • New feed pumps and feed heating system • New DCS system • Re use of bulk of ancillary equipment • New SCR plant • New FGD plant 600 MWe units similar to Ferrybridge ASR & CCS ready
Advanced Supercritical Retrofit (ASR) - Demonstrated • POSIFLOWTMBoiler Retrofit Process demonstrated at Yaomeng, China in 2002 • Retrofit of Chinese designed sub-critical 300MWe boiler. • Flaws in its design meant it had a low availability due to overheating • Retrofitted with Doosan Babcock POSIFLOWTM boiler • Order received in Dec 07 for similar conversion of a 2nd boiler • Technology could be applied to existing 200/210/250 MWe Indian boilers subject to full technical evaluation • There is a minimum size of unit below which the technology cannot be applied • Indian 200/210/250MWe boilers are borderline • requires a feasibility study to fully evaluate
Carbon Capture by Oxyfuel firing on Pulverised Coal Plant Figure courtesy of Vattenfall
Carbon Capture by Oxyfuel firing on Pulverised Coal Plant • Pilot scale tests by Doosan Babcock Energy 1996 • IEA studies completed • EU project ENCAP underway • EON 1MW rig now operational, confirmed DBE results • DTI funded collaborative R&D projects in progress (Doosan Babcock Energy, EON, RWE, Air Products …) • Vattenfall 30MW demonstration plant being built , and similar projects at Lacq and Callide • Full scale 40 MW burner test planned by Doosan Babcock in 2008/9
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Doosan Babcock Oxyfuel Burner development program • The Plan: To develop a competitive Oxyfuel technology suitable for full scale application 2010. • Three Stage Development Programme approach through the development and demonstration of Oxyfuel technology:- - Stage 1 : Fundamentals and System Design - Stage 2 : Modified Design Tools and Component Testing - Stage 3 : Reference Designs
Doosan Babcock burner test facility to be converted to Oxycoal firing Stage 2 will involve conversion of the test facility to OXYCOAL firing Multi Fuel Burner Test Facility (MBTF) • commissioned in Renfrew in 1999 • conversion to Oxyfuel under the UK OXYCOAL collaborative project. • £7m ($14m) funding now in place. Demonstration of a full utility sized Oxyfuel PF combustion, The firstfull-scale test of Oxyfuel firing in the world
What does it take for boiler to be (Oxyfuel) CCS ready Main Considerations: • Space for Air Separation Unit • Space for CO2 cleaning and compression • Space for CO2 recycle ducts • FGD may be needed for some coals • Feasible CO2 pipeline route to a storage area • Furnace & Boiler performance to suit oxyfuel/air coal combustion • Oxy-fuel burners would fit in the same space as regular burner without need for major pressure part modification • Boiler sealing against tramp air ingress • Planning extra space for piping/cabling & racks.
1 x ASC BT Oxyfuel Unit: - 2 x ASU trains : 80 m x 140 m - CO2 Compression : 80 m x 15 m - Maximum Height : 68 m ASU 1 CO2 ASU 2 80m 70m 70m Site Layout - Capture Plant Space Requirements 1 x ASC BT Amine Unit: - 2 x DCC - 2 x Fans / Blowers - 2 x CO2 Absorber Towers (12.5m Dia x 45m Height) - 1 x CO2 Stripper Tower (10m Dia.) - CO2 Compression : 40 m x 15m approx CW Tower Pond Dia ~90m CW Tower Height ~110m DCC & ABORBER 1 STRIPPER 100m DCC & ABSORBER 2 CO2 230m 15m 15m
Key Messages • Work to date has demonstrated that ASC Retrofits, designed to be “Capture Ready” are available options today – subject to initial feasibility study of each plant. • Oxyfuel firing is best suited to Indian coals due to their high ash and low reactivity. • An Indian-based CCS demonstration, involving oxyfuel firing, should be a high priority. • Feasibility study of Indian 200/210/250MWe units for ASC Retrofit with CCS urgently needed. • UK expertise and capital, combined with Indian skills and availability of utility plant in desperate need of renovation provides ‘Ideal Opportunity for UK-Indo Co-operation & International Leadership’.
Our Commitment to the Industry Doosan Babcock is committed to Development and Global Implementation of Cleaner power plants - Clean coal, Clean gas, nuclear and renewables as rapidly as the market allows
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