Using Motivational Interviewing (MI) Principles in Academic & Career Advising UI/WSU Advising Symposium September 14, 2012 Lisa Laugher and Cindy Empey Special thanks to Cheryl Stolz, Ph.D. WSU Counseling and Testing Center and Jason Kilmer, Ph.D., University of Washington, Dept. of Psychiatry, Motivational Interviewing specialist
What is motivational interviewing? A person-centered, directive method of communication for enhancing intrinsic motivation to change by exploring and resolving ambivalence. Miller & Rollnick (2002) A series of strategies, informed by respect for autonomy and values, utilized to maximize the changes that individuals will choose appropriate behavior changes. Rosengren (2009)
The Spirit of MI • Motivation for change is elicited from the individual, and not imposed by the advisor or any others. • It is the student’s task, not the advisor’s, to articulate and resolve his or her ambivalence. Direct persuasion is not an effective method for resolving ambivalence. • The style is generally a quiet and eliciting one. • The advisor is directive in helping the individual to examine and resolve ambivalence. • The relationship is more like a partnership than expert/recipient roles.
Basic Principles of MI • Express Empathy • Develop Discrepancy • Roll with Resistance • Support Self-Efficacy Miller & Rollnick (2002)
The Principles of MI • More recently, Rollnick, Miller, and Butler (2008) expressed these principles using an acronym: R - Resist the righting reflex U - Understand the student’s motivation L - Listen to the student E - Empower the student
The Principles of MI • Express Empathy • Research indicating importance of empathy… • Develop Discrepancy • Values and goals for future as potent contrast to status quo • Student must present arguments for change and the advisor declines the expert role
The Principles of MI • Roll with Resistance • Avoid argumentation • Confrontation increases resistance to change • Advisor’s role is to reduce resistance, since this is correlated with poorer outcomes…Resistance is a signal to respond differently • Support Self-Efficacy • The student is responsible for choosing and implementing change • Confidence and optimism are predictors of good outcome in both the professional and the person he or she is working with
OARS – Building Blocks for Advising Conversations • OARS is an acronym for: • Ask….. Open-Ended Questions • Affirm • Listen.. Reflectively • Summarize
Hypothesis Testing Model 3. What advisor hears 2. What student says 4. What advisor thinks student means 1. What student means
Using a Ruler • “How strongly do you feel about wanting to stay at WSU? On a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 is “not at all” and 10 is “very much,” where would you place yourself now? • “How important would you say it is for you to become a veterinarian? On a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 is “not at all important,” and 10 is “extremely important,” what would you say? • Then, ask why a lower number wasn’t given The answer = CHANGE TALK!
Types of Resistance • Argument • Challenging, Discounting, Hostility • Interruption • Talking over, Cutting off • Ignoring • Inattention, Non-response, Non-answer, Side-tracking • Denial • Blaming, Disagreeing, Excusing, Reluctance, Claiming impunity, Minimizing, Pessimism, Unwillingness to change
Key Questions: What Next? • “So, what do you make of all this now?” • “What do you think you’ll do?” • “What would be a first step for you?” • “What do you intend to do?” Rollnick, Miller, & Butler 2008