A Dramaturgical Look at Interviewing 9310031A Ken 9310033A Peter 9310043A Casper
Dramaturgy And Interviewing • Research is divided into two phases 1. Getting in 2. Analysis
Types Of Interviews Three categories of interview: • Standardized interview • Unstandardized interview • Semistandardized interview
Standardized Interview • Use a structured schedule of interview questions. (provide same questions to every subjects, so that we can compare the information from every subject after interviewing) • Standardized interviews are designed to elicit information from subjects by using a set of predetermined questions.
Unstandardized Interview • Do not use schedules of questions • We assume that interviewers do not know what question is necessary. • We assume that not all subjects would get the same meaning in one question. • Interviewers must generate questions randomly under different situations, but not predetermine questions. • It is useful when we are unfamiliar with the background of the subjects.
Semistandardized Interview • Interviewers have to ask predetermined questions to subjects, but also allow to digress. (interviewers can ask questions freely) • The subjects have to understand the questions (or words)
The Interview Schedule • Interviews provide more opportunities of complete communication between interviewers and subjects than pencil-and-paper questionnaires. • Interview is an effective method of collecting information for certain type of research question.
Schedule Development 1.Determine the nature of the investigation and the objectives of the research 2.Begin with outline, list all the categories we think may relate to the study 3.Develop questions which relate to the outline categories (the major points of the research)
Question Order, Content, and Style There are 4 types of question in survey instrument: • Essential questions • Extra questions • Throw-away questions • Probing questions
Essential Questions: • Essential questions concern the central focus of the study. • They may be placed together or scattered • Extra Question: • Extra questions are roughly equivalent to certain essential questions. • The purpose of extra questions are to check the reliability of subjects’ responses.
Throw-Away Questions: • Throw-away questions are incidental or unnecessary for gathering important information. • Even throw-away questions are incidental, they may draw out a complete story from a subject. • Probing Questions: Probes provide interviewers a way to get more complete information from subjects. Ex: Could you tell me more information?
Question Wording • In order to acquire information, researchers must word questions so that they will provide the necessary date. • If wrong questions are asked or if questions are asked in a manner that inhibits or prevents a respondent frm answering fully, the interview will not be fruitful.
Communicating Effectively • Researchers must always be sure they have clearly communicated to the subjects what they want to know. • The interviewers’ language must be understandable to the subject.
A Few Common Problems In Question Formulation • Affectively Worded Questions • The Double-Barreled Question • Complex Questions • Question Sequencing
Affectively Worded Questions • Arouse people some emotional response. • May control interview subjects. • Limit people’s possibility of a full answer. <ex>Do you study hard? →How many times a week would you read books?
The Double-Barreled Question • Ask a subject to respond to two topics in a single question at the same time. <Ex>Do you like the feedback what grammar checker gives, or the convenience what it gives? • The solution is to separate the two topics and ask separate questions.
Complex Questions • A long and complicated question will effect the entirety of a answer. • The solution is to keep questions short, specific and understandable.
Question Sequencing • The arrangement of questions affect the results. • These questions should be easier (general) in the beginning and then more complex (specific) step by step.
Pretesting The Schedule • After developing the instrument and sequence of questions. • The schedule should be examined by other people familiar with your study’s subject. • It can help you find out your biases and blind spots. • To seek what your information should be revised.
Pretesting The Schedule • Pretesting can evaluate how effectively the interview will work and whether the information which you find will be obtain • Pilot-testing: Before you formally ask questions to your participants, you can ask your teachers or friends whether they can understand.
Conducting an interview: A Natural Or An Unnatural Communication? • Research interview: Natural communication situation≠ Unnatural communication exchange • Evasion Tactics: participants will express that they don’t conduct further discussion of a issue by a word and gesture.
Deference Ceremony: Respect and thank those participants. • If you do not respect participants, they will give you wrong answer or unrelated information.
The Dramaturgical Interview • Interviewers can not have any preconceived notions. • Interviewers should offer incorrect and correct information to interviewees. <EX>What do you think “grammar checker”? <EX>What are advantages of grammar checker?
Role-Taking: Interviewees know about notions and expectation of interviewer’s role, but it is possible for interviewer to change role images. • By changing roles, the interviewer can prevent the avoidance tactics.
Interviewer Roles and Rapport • Rapport: develop a good relationship with interviewees. • Interviewers often assumed that they measure up to interviewee’s role expectation. • It still can conduct an interview without entire interviewees' expectations.
The interviewee’s conception of the interviewer centers on aspects of behavior and appearance such as age, gender. • Interviewees will confirm or deny expectations about what the interviewer should be like by these observable characteristics and general behavior • So interviewers should prepare everything already and know whether various strategies undertaken by interviewer.
The Negative Effects of An Interviewer’s Characteristics in The Literature on Interviewing • Obtain the interviewee’s permit to participate in an interview. • In the literature, interviewees will have potential bias arising from the effects of interviewer’s characteristics.
The Interviewer as A Self-Conscious Performer • Self-Conscious Performance: Interviewers’ actions, lines, roles, and routines must be prepared in advance.
Social Interpretations And The Interviewer • Social Interpretations: Affect messages transferred from one acting individual to another through nonverbal channels. • Nonverbal Channels: A variety of diverse elements which provides only a part of the information for accurate social interpretation. • Interviewers must hear not only what the subjects say, but also how they say it.
Interviewer as Actor • Must perform your lines, routines, and movements. • Must recite your scripted lines and be aware of the interviewee. • Must listen carefully what participants say.
Interviewer as Director • Must be conscious of how you perform lines, move, and the interviewee’s performance. • Must reflect on each part of the interview. • Use the first-person to transcribe. • Use third-person to observe.
Interviewer as Choreographer • Control the whole interview process. • Interviewers can block their own movements and gestures and write down your own response lines. • To control your time, information, if participants going to wrong topic, lead them back.
The Interviewer’s Repertoire Interviews seldom genuinely improvise a spontaneous technique or strategy. Preparation is a major guideline in interviewing 1. Interviews prepared with a series of scripted questions 2. The use of a consistent and systematic line of questions for unanticipated is useful
The characterizations are components of the interview’s repertoire Make interviewees to feel more comfortable with the idea of research
Character projections present effective opportunities to develop rapport Speaking with the subject on non-study related to interviewees Initial projections should be modifications, alterations, and adaptations used by interviewer Make the participants feel comfortable before interviewing.
Interviewer’s Attitudes and Persuading a Subject Attitudes toward the interview process affect the quality of the resulting research Arrange time for interviewees or separate different time
Novice interviews are often panic stricken. 1. Unprepared. Novice interviews should be affected on their project It is necessary to convince subjects that what they have to say is important Potential respondents have no time, researchers may be faced more difficult problem. Interview should be flexible
Developing an Interviewer Repertoire Interviewing require practice Reading about how to interview, particularly ethnographic accounts, offer neophyte interviewers necessary strategies and tactics The most effective way to learn interviewing is by role-playing with more experienced interviewers
Novice interviewers must try out their performances in front of an audience of competent critics The most effective way to accomplish this is a dress rehearsal Following dress-rehearsal period, novice interviewers should be ready to enter the field
The Ten Commandments of Interviewing Never begin an interview cold Remember your purpose Present a natural front Demonstrate aware hearing Think about appearance
Interview in a comfortable place Don’t be satisfied with monosyllabic answers Be respectful Practice, practice, and practice some more Be cordial and appreciative
Curtain Call Some individuals may never achieve the status of highly skilled interviewer
Analyzing Data Obtained From the Dramaturgical Interview Analysis is without question the most difficult aspect of any qualitative research project, it is the most creative Insights obtained from qualitative research not only add texture to an analysis but can also demonstrate meanings and understandings about problems and phenomena Quantitative data are in order to find results, but qualitative analysis cannot be conducted in this manner
Beginning an Analysis Analysis of interview data is necessary to understand what to do when you reach this phase in the research The most obvious way to analyze interview data is content analysis
Systematic filing systems The obvious purpose of a filing system is to develop a means by which to access various aspects of the data easily Classes of things, persons, events, and important characteristics Intended to establish the various topics to be indexed in the filing system
Table Student’s View of Formal Grammar Teaching on the Development of English Writing Proficiency [Major Topic/Theme] Subthemes No grammar Improve Use Concepts writing skill sentence imitation No good grammar Teaching grammar Students Write and concepts can write can improve Share down good sentence writing skill their sentence
Short-Answer sheets Stored in separate files Stored each interview transcript Summarize many of the issues and topics contained in each transcript
Analysis Procedures: A Concluding Remark The collection of qualitative data is extensive that researchers can feel that their jobs must be complete After completed, researchers must examine potential patterns