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Prepositional Phrases. How can I identify prepositions and their function in a sentence?. A word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. The baseball player in the white shirt hit a homerun. Common Prepositions.

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prepositional phrases

Prepositional Phrases

How can I identify prepositions and their function in a sentence?

slide2

A word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence.

The baseball player in the white shirt

hit a homerun.

common prepositions
Common Prepositions

Here is a list of the most common prepositions:

slide4

A word that shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun and some other word in the sentence. (Add prepositions below.)

______ her boat ______noon

______ a house ______ class

______ the goat ______ a goon

______ a mouse _______ a pass

slide5

Always begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun.

Write sentences for these prepositional phrases:

under the doors

on the Lake Michigan shore

near excellent schools

slide6

OBJECTOFTHEPREPOSITION

The OP is the noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase.

The baseball player in the white shirt

hit a homerun.

slide7

OBJECTOFTHEPREPOSITION

The noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase.

on her boat before noon

in a house during class

near the goat about a goon

under a mouse without a pass

a preposition is a part of speech that shows a relationship between two things
A preposition is a part of speech that shows a relationship between two things
  • Prepositions show relationship by:
    • Location(on, under, in)
    • Timing (before, after, during)
    • Direction (from, toward, to)
location
Location
  • The mouse is under the table.
  • Two things: mouse + table
  • Relationship: one is under the other
  • Under is a preposition!
location1
Location
  • Prepositions show the location or movement of an object in many different ways!
timing
Timing
  • Kate ate breakfast before her brother.
  • Two things: Kate + Kate’s brother
  • Relationship: one is before the other
  • Before is a preposition!
timing1
Timing
  • Prepositions show the relationship of a noun or pronoun to time.
direction or movement
Direction or Movement
  • The couple sailed across the vast lake.
  • Two things: couple + lake
  • Relationship: one is crossing the other
  • Across is a preposition!
direction or movement1
Direction or Movement
  • Prepositions show the relationship of a noun or pronoun in a direction or movement to another object.
prepositional phrases as adjectives and adverbs
Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives and Adverbs
  • Prepositional Phrases can function as
    • Adjectives known as an adjective phrase
    • Adverbs known as an adverb phrase
what do adjectives and adverbs modify
What do adjectives and adverbs modify?
  • Adjective phrases modify
    • Nouns and
    • Pronouns
  • Adverbs phrases modify
    • Verbs
    • Adjectives and
    • Other Adverbs
slide17

Modifies a noun or pronoun

It answers the same questions an adjective would:

Which one? What kind? How many?

The puppy in the shop window jumped up.

preposition as an adjective
Preposition as an adjective
  • If it functions as an adjective it is called an adjective phrase.
    • The fabrics from the Orient were quite beautiful.
  • What is your prepositional phrase?
    • From the Orient
  • What does it describe?
    • Fabrics (the subject of the sentence)
preposition as an adjective1
Preposition as an adjective
  • These ancient hangings are tapestries from other lands.
  • What is your prepositional phrase?
    • From other lands
  • What does it describe?
    • Tapestries (the noun in the predicate)
slide20

Modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb

It answers the same questions an adverb would:

Where? When? How?

The puppy jumped to the food.

preposition as an adverb
Preposition as an adverb
  • If it functions as an adverb, it is called an adverb phrase.
    • The women are weaving on looms.
  • What is your prepositional phrase?
    • On looms
  • What does it describe?
    • Are weaving (on loom describes the verb)
preposition as an adverb1
Preposition as an adverb
  • That fabric looks great on you.
  • What is your prepositional phrase?
    • On you
  • What does it modify?
    • Great (it describes an adjective)
slide23

You MUST memorize the prepositions!

  • If there is no object of the preposition (if the preposition is not part of a phrase), then it is not a preposition—it is an adverb.
    • RULE: Subjects and verbs will never be found in a prepositional phrase.
slide24

The gecko climbed up the wall.

In this example “up the wall” is a prepositional phrase.

The gecko climbed up.

In this example “up” is an adverb.

The gecko climbed upon the wall.

In this example “up” is an adverb and “on the wall” is the prepositional phrase. Is it functioning as an adjective or adverb?

slide25

Identify the prepositional phrases and the objects of the preposition in each sentence below. Tell whether each phrase is functioning as an adjective or adverb.

  • The paper with the blue border is floating through the air.
  • Jordan’s eyes sparkle like a sunny day.
  • With great ease, Michael jumped up on the table.
slide26

The paper with the blue border is floating through the air.

  • Jordan’s eyes sparkle like a sunny day.
  • With great ease, Michael jumped on the table.

Prepositional phrase

Object as as an adjective

Object as as an adverb

slide27

adverb or preposition?

  • The tadpoles are below the water’s surface.
  • I jumped up, and Amy jumped down.
  • Is Taylor near?
  • Erin looked at the purple-haired boy.