Semester One People Exam Review 2014.
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Italian diplomat who lived 1478-1529. Publiahed Famous Renaissance book, The Book of the Courtier. This became the archetype for the “Renaissance Man,” who was versed in liberal arts and social graces, as contrasted to the more unrefined Middle Ages Knight.
This German philosopher, a believer of Darwinism, founded Monism, which postulates that humans are simply a part of nature. In 1899, The Riddle of the Universe was published to wide acclaim.
An English maker of pottery and china, he developed the pyrometer (measures temperature in kilns) and was able to produce inexpensive china. He is also noted for introducing mechanization to the porcelain industry.
He became Czar of Russia in 1825 and was immediately faced with the Decembrist Revolt, which he crushed. He was a firm follower of autocracy and stressed conservative policies that forced many of Russia’s liberal intellectuals to flee.
During their reign, they captured Granada from the Moors in 1492, took powers away from the Church courts, and the nobility, and forcibly united a kingdom with a Catholic identity through the Inquisition.
He was a British author who believed that population growth was a great danger. He believed that it was impossible for agricultural output to keep pace with expanding population and that social, political and economic crisis would ensue if population growth was not checked.
Puritan leader of the Roundhead army in the English Civil War who defeated Charles I and established a republic, or commonwealth, in England. He ruled as “Lord Protector” from 1653 – 58, the period known as the “Interregnum” in England.
Swiss leader of Protestantismand advocate of predestination who creates theocracies in Swiss cantons. His ideas led to a large following in France, known as the Huguenots.
traditional rational philosophy. He claimed
God was dead and that there were
“superman” who would come to govern
and run societies over ordinary men.
Became King of France in 1814; the conservative Congress of Vienna restored him to power. He was the brother of Louis XVI and ruled as a constitutional monarch until his death in 1824. (known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1814 to 1824 except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.)
British idealist who believed that industrial workers and owners needed to work cooperatively in order to create an ideal working and living situation. He tried to reorganize society on a socialistic basis, and established an industrial community on the Clyde, Scotland, and, later, a similar one in Indiana.
Dutch sailor who searched for the Northwest Passage and claimed much of Northern Canada when he was employed by the British.
French clergyman and revolutionary, author of “What is the Third Estate,” which expressed the pains and complaints of the Third Estate, around which the revolutionary Third Estate rallied.
German artist who lived from 1471-1528. Famous for his woodcuts and copper engravings. Influenced by Venetian artists, he was versed in classical teachings and humanism. He also the first to create printed illustrations in books.
Ruler of France 1744-1492. Successor of Louis XV. Married Antoinette, and nearly bankrupted France by supporting the American Revolution. Beheaded by the guillotine in January of 1793, on the orders of the National Convention.
Italian navigator who crossed the Atlantic several times and officially called the land thought by Columbus to be Asia the “New World.” Later a German cartographer renamed this land “America” in honor of his work.
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England. He tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. He was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.
Son of Charles V and a devout Catholic, he was the Hapsburg ruler of Spain for 1556-1598. He led the Spanish Counter-Reformation but failed to invade Protestant England with his Spanish Armada.
Born in Austria in 1756, he was a musical child prodigy, Until his death in 1791, he produced masterpieces in almost every genre. Among his famous works are The Magic Flute and The Marriage of Figaro.
Monk who was commissioned by Pope Leo X to raise money for the Church and was sent throughout northern Germany to sell indulgences. This outraged Martin Luther and other critics if the Church and played a role in the start of the Reformation.
Ruler of the Netherlands who led a revolt for independence against Hapsburg Philip II of Spain. He and his wife Mary were crowned joint monarchs of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1689. Their accession, known as the ‘Glorious Revolution’, marked an important transition towards parliamentary rule as we know it today.
An Austrian journalist (1860-1904) who called for the creation of a Jewish homeland. This movement, called Zionism, spread throughout Europe and the USA.
Conservative Austrian leader, who, as representative of Royal Family at the Congress of Vienna, led the reactionary forces in shaping the early 19th century. He worked to keep liberal ideas at bay in Austria until 1859.
Tudor Queen of England. Succeeded Mary I in 1558 and ruled until 1603. In addition to leading the defeat of he Spanish Armada and developing England into a world power, she strengthened Protestantism. Daughter of Henry VIII.
Hohenzollern ruler of Brandenburg, Prussia, after the end of the Thirty Years’ War. Known as “the Great Elector” who improved and rebuilt the state.
Portuguese navigator whose crew first circumnavigated the globe and thus proved that the world was round and that the New World was not a part of Asia. Furthermore, His exploration of the Pacific Ocean yielded its name because if its pacific, or calm, nature.
Dutch scholar known as “Prince of Northern Humanists.” Lived from 1465-1536. He criticized the lack of spirituality in the Church in The Praise of Folly, which ridicules the superstition, ignorance, and vice of Christians on pilgrimages, in fasting, and the Church’s interpretation of the Bible.
Son of Prussian King Frederick William I and ruler of Prussia from 1740-1786. He seized Silesia from Austria. Starting the War of Austrian Succession and then the Diplomatic Revolution.
Oldest daughter of Henry VIII. Queen of England from 1553-1558. Known fro her ruthless, deadly suppression of the Anglicanism in attempting to re-Catholicize England. She married Spain’s Philip II.
Mary I of England
Mary Queen of the Scotts
1512-1870 – He was one of Britain’s greatest novelists. He works often sought to show suffering of the poor in industrial Britain. His works include Oliver Twist and David Copperfield.
Flemish scientist who pioneered the study of anatomy and provided detailed overviews of the human body and its systems.
Bourbon King of France. He was restored to power by the Congress of Vienna. His conservative actions prompted his overthrow in 1830.
Austrian daughter of Empress Maria Theresa. Married Louis XVI to strengthen Franco-Austrian relations. Became the most hated woman in France because of her ostentation and refusal to support reforms. Guillotined in October of 1793.
A firm believer in British rights to expand control across Africa. He successfully helped Britain gain control of South Africa and Rhodesia (named after him). Lived from 1853-1902.
English physician who used lab experiments to study the circulation of blood and its flow through arteries and veins as well as their heart.
Romanov ruler of Russia known as Ivan the Terrible. He was a fierce ruler who laid the groundwork for the westernization of Russia that was later continued by Peter the Great. Ivan IV’s rule of intimidation lasted from 1547- 1584.
British nurse whose emphasis on cleanliness and training for nurses revolutionized health care.
First Bourbon king of France, ruled 1589-1610, and converted to Catholicism from Calvinism to bring peace after the French Civil War. He passed the Edict of Nantes and was also assassinated in 1610.
Flemish painters who applied great attention to the details in their work, particularly in their capturing of human facial expressions. Their altarpiece for a church in Ghent captures the expressions of Adam and Eve in a way that is more realistic than the symbolic depiction of the Middle Age artists.
Leader of the WSPU (Women’s Social and Political Union), which fought for women’s suffrage in Britain.
Son of Mary Queen of Scots. Ruled England and Scotland together until 1625. Believed in divine-right rule and Anglicanism, which led to conflict with the largely Puritan Parliament. Closest relative to Elizabeth I at the time of her death.
A great leader of Great Britain’s Conservative Party, held the office of Prime Minister in 1868 and again from 1874-1880. He was a strong supporter of Britain’s imperialist ambitions, but also supported a policy of liberal social reforms.
Tudor King of England from 1509-1547. Established the Anglican Church as the official Church of England when the Catholic Church refused to nullify his marriage. His son, Edward VI, was sickly and died in 1553, leaving the throne to Mary I.
Franciscan monk, English philosopher, and scientist in the 1200s who advocated for a system of scientific experimentation in seeking truth rather than accepting without question traditional Church and ancient beliefs. This led to the development of the scientific method.
An English lawyer and statesman whose philosophical theories and writings influenced the development of scientific, advocated inductive reasoning (1561-1626), and legal thought in Great Britain and the United States.
German philosopher and author. A believer in universal consciousness, he also held that history was a goal-driven process. A part of this process was the “dialectic.” He lived from 1770-1831.
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain’s Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
He was the British founder of the Methodists. He stressed the need for piety, devotion, and acceptance of one’s lot. He died in 1791.
British inventor of the water frame (1769), which helped revolutionize textile production.
Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa and thus found the route from Europe to India and the East Indies, which provided Europeans with the cargoes of jewels and spices they so desired.
The Czar liberator who issued a proclamation “freeing” the serfs. However, he was assassinated in 1881.
The German philosopher who postulated that experience dictates human knowledge. He also said morality rests on the “categorical imperative.”
Prime Minister to Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont Although he considered himself liberal, he was willing to use deception to promote national goals.
Criticized the Church and the corruption in its clergy in the 1300s. Challenged papal infallibility and called for the power of the clergy to be supplanted with the Bible and individual interpretation of it by all Catholics. Together with Jan Hus he set the stage for the Protestant Reformation.
Mathematician who used models, observations, and mathematics to prove the heliocentric theory developed by Copernicus. His work was later supported by Galileo.
English humanist, contemporary of Erasmus, and author of Utopia, in which he condemned governments as corrupt, and private property. As the first lay chancellor of England, he was later executed by Henry VIII when he refused to agree that the King was the supreme head of the English Church.
Philosopher who wrote Candide, satirizing prejudice, oppressive government, and bigotry. Championed freedom of religion and thought.
15th - century English explorer who traveled to the coasts of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New England. His voyages led to England’s claim in North America.
Known as the father of the Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study if the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his “lady love” who spoke no Latin.
Parisian playwright who led a group of women to create the “Declaration of the Rights of Women and Citizenesses,” which appealed (unsuccessfully) to the National Assembly for women’s equality.
German theologian who led the Reformation; believed that salvation is granted on the basis of faith rather than deeds (1483-1546). He is often considered to be the foundation for the Peasants' Revolt; however, he maintained allegiance to the Princes against the violence of the rebels.
She is the most famous for her romantic novel, Frankenstein. Its message was that man should not try and imitate God or challenge nature.
Italian explorer commissioned by Queen Isabella of Spain to find a shorter route to Asia by sailing westward. In 1492, Columbus sailed on the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria going west across the Atlantic. He landed on what he called the Indies but were actually islands in the Caribbean.
Russian imperial dynasty that strengthened absolutism in Russia. Ruled from 1613-1917, when the Revolution forced Nicholas II’s abdication.
Son of Prussian King Frederick I who ruled from 1713-1740. He channeled royal funds toward militarizing Prussia, creating an efficient tax system, and establishing compulsory education.
Chief minister to Henry IV’s weak son, Louis XIII of France. He worked to establish absolute rule by weakening the nobles and Huguenots and employing intendants.
Hapsburg ruler of Spain from 15 16-1596. Elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1519. He defended the Hapsburg lands from the Ottomans and decided to split the Hapsburg Spanish and Holy Roman lands between his son, Philip II, and his brother , Ferdinand I.
Italian scientist who invented the telescope. This enabled him to reach new astronomical observations, such as that not every heavenly body (planet) revolves around Earth. His later work formed the basis for the study of objects in motion, or physics.
English scientist who suggested the theories of the survival of the fittest and of evolution. Author of The Origin of the Species.
He and Marx coauthored The Communist Manifesto (1848), after which they continued to write about the need for and work toward socialist changes.
Wealthy merchant family of bankers who controlled the Italian city-state of Florence during the Renaissance era. Their subsidization of the arts, especially under Lorenzo, supported the flowering of the Renaissance.
Best known for his powerful nine symphonies. He introduce innovations in the type and number of instruments used in performances.
Florentine diplomat and historian who lived from 1469-1527. Wrote the famous essay, The Prince, which described his view of realistic government with a strong leader concerned only with political power and success and embracing the ideal of seeking to be feared rather than loved by the masses.
The Polish scientist who worked in the 1500s. He abandoned the largely accepted geocentric theory that the planets moved around Earth and advocated the heliocentric theory, which stated that the center of the universe was near the sun.
Prince Metternich was an ultra-conservative Austrian chancellor. The system bearing his name sought to restore pre-Napoleonic rulers to their thrones, restore the European balance of power and repress liberal and democratic ideas. Metternich was forced to resign in 1848.
English philosopher and author of Leviathan, in which he explained that a state of chaos and war existed prior to a social contract forming a government, which should be led by a sovereign invested with absolute power in exchange for protection of group safety and social order.
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women’s equality with me, even in voting, in her 1792 Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
George Gordon, was an important British Romantic poet. His works include “She Walks in Beauty” and the unfinished “Don Juan.” many consider him to embody the spirit of Romanticism. He died from an illness contracted while in Greece, where he was supporting their independence movement.
Stuart son of Charles I and ruler of England from 1660-85. Known as the “Merry Monarch” because of his restoration of a more liberal culture after Cromwell’s conservative republic.
Philosophe who published the Social Contract. He posited that people are born good but are corrupted by education, laws, and society. He advocated a government based on popular sovereignty and was distrustful of other philosophes’ suffocating conformity to “reason.”
This person ruled from 1643-1715, the longest reign in French history. He constructed Versailles, believed in divine right of kings, engaged in many wars, and established absolutism in France.
Romanov ruler of Russia from 1682-1725. He brought Western European ideas to Russia, improved the Russian army, achieved control of the Orthodox Church, dominated the nobility, and transformed Russia into a major world power.
Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and Sir Walter Raleigh were among this group of adventurous English sea captains who challenged Portuguese and Spanish sea trade supremacy and robbed foreign vessels of their valuables.
Inventor of dynamite. He established a fund, in 1901, that was named after him, which rewarded and acknowledged people who worked for literary and scientific achievement and for peace. The prizes are still awarded today.
Romanov ruler of Russia from 1763-96 who supported enlightened additions to Russian culture and expanded Russia’s borders to include control of the northern shores of the Black Sea, the Crimea, Polish land, and Alaska.
English scientist and author of works explaining the law of universal gravitation and means of measuring motion. His work inspired the notion of natural and universal laws ordering and arranging life.
Philosophe who wrote Spirit of the Laws in 1748. He described the British model of divided branches of government with checks and balances as the ideal system, later influencing the framing of the U.S. Constitution.
King George II’s chief minister until 1742 who worked for peace. He strengthened the role of Britain’s cabinet and stabilized the political landscape, earning him the label as the first English “Prime Minister.”
(r.1855-81)Emperor of Russia; advocated moderate reforms for Russia; emancipated the serfs; he was assassinated. (His liberal education and distress at the outcome of the Crimean War, which had demonstrated Russia’s backwardness, inspired him toward a great program of domestic reforms, the most important being the emancipation (1861) of the serfs. A period of repression after 1866 led to a resurgence of revolutionary terrorism and to Alexander’s own assassination.)
1462-1509, Duchess of Forli. Courageous, tyrannical, proud and ruthless. Illegit. offspring of future Duke of Milan. Married off at 14, 9 kids, several love affairs. But life shows limitations placed on women. Took over Duchy when husband died. Became very powerful. Wouldn't concede to sons. Eventually overthrown by Cesare Borgia. Raped at age 46. Burckhardt thought Renaissance improved status of women - this now considered a very questionable claim.
Protestant. Caused a Civil war in England when he invaded the Long Parliament, which would not support his attempt to gain enough money and an army to suppress the rebellion in Scotland. Executed
The assassin of the French revolutionary Jean-Paul Marat. Descended from a noble family, educated in a convent at Caen, and royalist by sentiment, yet susceptible also to the ideals of the Enlightenment, Corday was living with an aunt in Caen when it became a center of the “federalist” movement against the National Convention after the expulsion of the Girondins in May–June 1793.
French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia, which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs in 1535.
1515-1582, major Spanish leader of the reform movement for monasteries and convents, believed an individual could have a direct relationship with God through prayer and contemplation, reformed Carmelite nuns.
He put forth the theory of historical evolution, where each age is characterized by a dominating set of ideas (a thesis, which develops opposing idea (antithesis), which eventually produces a whole new different idea (synthesis).
French-Swiss woman of letters, political propagandist, and conversationalist, who epitomized the European culture of her time, bridging the history of ideas from Neoclassicism to Romanticism. She also gained fame by maintaining a salon for leading intellectuals. She refused to accept Napoleons growing despotism.
(1754-1793) was a French writer, early feminist, and political figure, who presided over a salon and was influential in her husband's career during the early years of the French Revolution. He was an influential member of the Girondinist faction. She fell out of favor during the Reign of Terror and was executed on the guillotine for treason.
Alias – Marie-Jeanne Phlippon Roland