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Randy Schoephoerster www.airtreknorth.com. Instrument Ground Training Module 4 & 5. Agenda. Airports, ATC and Airspace IFR Flight Planning ATC Clearances and Communication Procedures Radio Failure Airspace Video on Lost Communications Video on FAR’s Test Questions on FAR’s.

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Randy schoephoerster www airtreknorth com

Randy Schoephoersterwww.airtreknorth.com

Instrument Ground Training Module 4 & 5


  • Airports, ATC and Airspace

    • IFR Flight Planning

    • ATC Clearances and Communication Procedures

    • Radio Failure

    • Airspace

    • Video on Lost Communications

    • Video on FAR’s

    • Test Questions on FAR’s


  • The sole purpose of this class is to expedite your passing the FAA knowledge test. With that said, all extra material not directly tested on the FAA knowledge test is omitted, even though much more information and knowledge is necessary to fly safely. Consult the FAR/AIM (CFR) and other FAA Handbooks for further information along with a Flight Instruction course.

  • Instrument Knowledge Test is good for 24 calendar months. FAA-G-8082-13d

Atc communication procedures
ATC Communication Procedures

  • If you are taking off from an intersection

    • Pilot must state position on the airport when calling the tower for takeoff

  • Maintain continuous contact with ATC

    • Radio frequency changes are made at the direction of ATC

  • Climbing or Descending per ATC clearance

    • Use the optimum rate (500ft to 1500fpm)

    • It is okay to use cruise climb rather than maximum angle

    • If you cannot climb at least 500fpm, notify ATC

    • Lead your turns so that you remain in the center of the airway

Pilot reporting to atc
Pilot Reporting to ATC

  • At all times when

    • Inability to climb at least 500fpm

    • Change in avg true airspeed at cruising altitude from your flight plan by 5% or 10kts.

    • Change from assigned altitude

    • Missed approach

    • Departure from any assigned holding point

    • The time and altitude when reaching holding fix or clearance limit

    • Loss of communication or navigation capability

    • Anything that affects safety of flight

Atc when not in radar contact
ATC When not in Radar Contact

  • Notify ATC when

    • Departure from final approach fix inbound on final approach

    • Correction of an estimate that is more than 3 min in error

    • Passage over the following points.

      • Compulsory reporting points as marked by solid black triangles on en route charts

      • Each fix used in the flight plan not flown on radials or courses of airways our routes

Rules and definitions
Rules and Definitions

  • Mode C transponder must be ON and set to Mode C (Altitude reporting)

  • ATC sees only the airplane’s direction of travel, not the airplane heading

    • Adjust traffic reports for any wind correction you are holding

  • Radar contact: ATC has identified your aircraft and they will follow you on the radar until terminated by the controller

  • Resume own navigation: You are under ATC radar surveillance but under your own navigation so no more vectors will be given

  • Radar Service Terminated: ATC no longer sees you on radar and the pilot must resume position reports at compulsory reporting points

  • Class C: IFR flights will receive traffic separation from all aircraft ATC is talking to

  • When flying practice approaches, the flight does not have a clearance, therefore, you must maintain VFR conditions

Rules and definitions1
Rules and Definitions

  • Question any assigned altitude or heading believed to be incorrect. Pilot has the ultimate responsibility for safe flight.

  • When ATC provides an airspeed, the pilot is expected to maintain the speed +/-10Kts IAS (indicated airspeed)

  • Class D: If you cancel 10 mi from your destination airport, you must establish communications with the tower prior to entering class D

  • Airports with a part time tower and FSS

    • FSS provides advisory data on runways, weather, traffic patterns, etc

    • If ATC is not operating, you must cancel your own flight plan by notifying FSS

  • Minimum Fuel is an advisory to ATC that indicates an emergency situation is possible should any undue delay occur

Radio communication failure
Radio Communication Failure

  • ATC assumes pilot is operating in accordance with CFR 91.185

    • You should leave a holding pattern at the EFC (expected further clearance) time

    • If in VFR, continue your flight under VFR and land as soon as practical

    • If in IFR, continue on the route specified in your clearance (for each leg) at the highest of

      • Last assigned altitude

      • Expected altitude per ATC

      • MEA (minimum en route altitude)

    • Set transponder to 7600

Lost radio communications
Lost Radio Communications

  • VFR Conditions

    • Squawk 7600

    • Stay in VMC (Visual Meteorlogical Conditions)

    • Land and Call ATC/FSS

  • IFR

    • Squawk 7600

    • Route: Follow AVE F

      • A: Last Assigned

      • V: Vectored

      • E: Expected

      • F: Filed

      • Whichever was received last

    • Altitude: Follow MEA

      • MEA

      • Expected

      • Assigned

      • Whichever is highest




Navigation radio failure
Navigation Radio Failure

  • DME fails above FL 240 (24,000ft),

    • Continue flight to next airport of intended landing so repairs can be made

  • Must immediately report to ATC the loss of

    • VOR, ADF, TACAN receiver capability

    • Partial loss of ILS receiver

    • Any impairment of radio communications capability.


  • En Route Low-Altitude Charts show the limits of controlled airspace, military training routes, and special use airspace

    • Does not include Class A airspace

  • ATC does not control air traffic in Class G airspace

  • Class E airspace

    • Used to transition flights between the terminal area and en route flight

    • If an airport has an instrument approach, Class G only goes up to 700ftAGL, then it is Class E (unless designated that Class E extends from the surface)

    • Airways extend upward from 1200ft AGL and are 4NM wide from centerline

  • MOA (Military Operations Area): Purpose is to separate military training activities from IFR traffic

Federal airways
Federal Airways

  • Run from VOR to VOR

  • Are Class E airspace

  • Extend upward from 1200ft AGL to 17,999 MSL

  • 4NM on either side of the centerline or 8NM in width


  • Class G: Maximum altitude is 14,500ft MSL except in airspace less than 1,500ft AGL (ie: mountainous areas)

  • Normally, class B extends up to 10,000ft MSL

  • Class D airspace has a radius of 4NM

  • Normally, Class D airspace extends up to 2,500ft AGL

  • Class C airspace: Must have two way radio and transponder with Mode C (Altitude reporting)

3 9 class d airspace and airport advisory area
3.9 Class D Airspace and Airport Advisory Area

  • Class D airspace is normally the airspace up to 2,500ft above the surface of the airport

    • The lateral dimensions of Class D airspace are based on the instrument procedures for the controlled airspace is established

  • Two-way radio communication with the control tower is required for landings and takeoffs at all tower-controlled airports, regardless of weather conditions


3 10 class c airspace
3.10 Class C Airspace

  • The vertical limit of Class C airspace above the primary airport is normally

    • 1200ft AGL

    • 3,000ft AGL

    • 4,000ft AGL

      C. 4,000ft AGL



  • Airports, ATC and Airspace

    • IFR Flight Planning

    • ATC Clearances and Communication Procedures

    • Radio Failure

    • Airspace

    • Video on Lost Communications

    • Video on FAR’s

    • Test Questions on FAR’s

Randy schoephoerster www airtreknorth com1

Randy Schoephoersterwww.airtreknorth.com

Instrument Ground Training Module 4 & 5